Entardecer em Tahoe (pormenor), de Willard Dixon
16 de Setembro de 2004 ⋅ Filosofia da ciência

Bibliografia seleccionada de filosofia da ciência

Ward E. Jones e Samir Okasha
Com W.H. Newton-Smith
Universidade de Oxford

Gostaríamos de agradecer  a Tony Atkinson, Harvey Brown, Paul Castell, Helena Cronin, Martin Davies, Dorothy Edgington, Elizabeth Frazer, Miranda Fricker, James Logue, Ana Nettel, John Preston, John Roche, Simon Saunders, Tom Stoneham, Maricio Suarez, e Adam Swift pela sua ajuda na compilação desta bibliografia.

Índice

  1. Obras gerais e introduções à filosofia da ciência
  2. Explicação científica
  3. A natureza das teorias científicas
  4. Idealização
  5. Verosimilhança
  6. Significado e referência dos termos científicos
  7. Teoria e observação
  8. Confirmação
  9. Subdeterminação
  10. A tese de Quine-Duhem
  11. Convencionalismo e o papel da convenção
  12. Valores epistémicos e virtudes teóricas
  13. Realismo e anti-realismo
  14. Inferência e explicação
  15. Leis da natureza
  16. A natureza da probabilidade
  17. Experimentação
  18. Experiências mentais
  19. Modelos e analogias
  20. Medição
  21. História da ciência (pré-século XX)
  22. Positivismo lógico
  23. Karl Popper
  24. Thomas Kuhn
  25. Paul Feyerabend
  26. Imre Lakatos
  27. Teorias da mudança científica
  28. O estudo social da ciência
  29. Valores não-epistémicos e a sua presença na ciência
  30. O debate entre Leibniz e Clarke
  31. Filosofia da biologia
  32. Filosofia da física
  33. Filosofia da psicologia
  34. Filosofia das ciências sociais

Abreviaturas e símbolos

  • * Leitura importante ou central
  • Revistas e periódicos
  • APQ — American Philosophical Quarterly
  • Bio&Phil — Biology and Philosophy
  • BJPS — British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  • HistPhilSci — Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science
  • ISPS — International Studies in the Philosophy of Science
  • JPhil — Journal of Philosophy
  • MinnStud — Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science
  • PASS — Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society
  • PhilQuart — Philosophical Quarterly
  • PhilRev — Philosophical Review
  • PhilSci — Philosophy of Science
  • PSA — Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association
  • Editoras
  • OUP — Oxford University Press
  • CUP — Cambridge University Press
  • HUP — Harvard University Press
  • PUP — Princeton University Press
  • UCP — University of Chicago Press

1. Obras gerais e introduções à filosofia da ciência

  • Chalmers, A.F. (1982) What is this thing called Science? Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
  • Collins, H.M. (1985) Changing Order, London: Sage.
  • Fetzer, J. (1993) Philosophy of Science, N.Y.: Paragon House.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Harré, R. (1981) Great Scientific Experiments, Oxford: Phaidon.
  • Harré, R. (1985) The Philosophies of Science, Oxford: OUP. (2nd enlarged ed.).
  • Hempel, C. G. (1966) The Philosophy of Natural Science, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
  • Kuhn, T. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: UCP.
  • Kyburg, H.E. (1990) Science & Reason, Oxford: OUP.
  • Lambert, K. & Brittain, G. C. (1987) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Ridgeview: Atascadero, 3rd edn.
  • Newton-Smith W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge.
  • Pap, A. (1963) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.
  • Papineau, D. (1995) "Methodology: The Elements of the Philosophy of Science" in A. Grayling (ed.) Philosophy: A Guide Through the Subject, Oxford: OUP.
  • Quine, W.V.O. & Ullian, J. (1970) The Web of Belief, N.Y.: Random House.
  • Salmon, M. ed. (1992) Introduction to Philosophy of Science, Englewood Cliffs NJ, Prentice-Hall.
  • Toulmin, S. (1967) The Philosophy of Science, London: Hutchinson.

2. Explicação científica

Pré-Hempel

  • Aristotle Posterior Analytics, 93a-96a.
  • Duhem, P. (1954) The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, Princeton: PUP.
  • Mill, J.S. A System of Logic, Book III Chapters IV and V.

Colectâneas e estudos gerais

  • Knowles, D. (1990) Explanation and Its Limits, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Pitt, J.C. (1988) Theories of Explanation, Oxford: OUP.
  • Ruben, D.-H. (1990) Explaining Explanation, London: RKP
  • Salmon, W.S. (1984) "Scientific Explanation: Three General Conceptions" PSA Vol. 2, pp. 293-305.
  • Salmon, W.S. (1990) Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, Minneapolis, Univ. of Minnesota Press. [Reim. de MinnStud Vol XIII, (eds.) P. Kitcher & W. Salmon.]

O modelo dedutivo-nomológico

  • Achinstein, P. (1983) The Nature of Explanation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chs. 1 to 5.
  • Ackermann, R. (1965) "Discussion: Deductive Scientific Explanation", PhilSci. 32, pp. 155-167.
  • Armstrong, D. (1983) What is a Law of Nature?, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 40ff.
  • Braithwaite, R. (1953) Scientific Explanation, Cambridge,: Cambridge University Press, 1953.
  • Cupples, B. (1977) "Three Types of Explanation", PhilSci, 44, pp. 387-408.
  • Cupples, B. (1980) "Four types of Explanation", PhilSci, 47, pp. 626-29.
  • Davidson, D. (1980) "Causal Relations", in his Essays on Actions and Events, Oxford: OUP. [Originalmente JPhil 1967]
  • Dietl, P. (1966) "Paresis and the alleged symmetry between explanation and prediction", BJPS 17, p. 313-318.
  • Eberle, R., Kaplan, D. & Montague, R. (1961) "Hempel and Oppenheim on Explanation", PhilSci 28 , pp. 418-28.
  • Feyerabend, P.K. (1962) "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism", MinnStud Vol. 3.
  • Goodman, N. (1983) "The Problems of Counterfactual Conditionals", in Goodman, N, Fact, Fiction and Forecast, London: Harvard University Press, 4th edition.
  • Hempel, C. (1965) Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: The Free Press, & London: Collier-Macmillan, (esp. 12 "Aspects of Scientific Explanation"; de 8 a 11 também.)
  • Irzik, G. (1990) "Singular Causation and Law" PSA Vol.1, p. 537-543.
  • Jobe, E. (1985) "Explanation, Causality and Counterfactuals", PhilSci 52, pp. 357-89.
  • Kaplan, D. (1961) "Explanation Revisited", PhilSci 28, pp. 429-36.
  • Miller, R.W. (1987) Fact and Method, Princeton: PUP, Part I esp. Ch 1-3.
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science, London: Routledge (esp. Chs. 2 & 3).
  • Ruben, D.-H. (1990) Explaining Explanation, London: Routledge
  • Scriven, M. (1962) "Explanations, Predictions, Laws", in MinnStud Vol. III, Minneapolis; University of Minnesota Press, pp. 170-230.
  • Scriven, M. (1963) "New Issues in the Logic of Explanation" in Hook, S (ed.), Philosophy and History, New York: New York University Press.

Modelos alternativos

  • Brown, J. (1988) "Platonic Explanation", ISPS.
  • Cartwright, N. (1983) "The Simulacrum Account of Explanation", in How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Dray, W. (1957) Laws and Explanations in History, Oxford: OUP.
  • Dray, W.H. ed. (1966) Philosophical Analysis and History, London: Harper & Row.
  • Friedman, M. (1974) "Explanation and Scientific Understanding", JPhil.
  • Garfinkle, A. (1981) Forms of Explanation, New Haven: Yale.
  • Glymour, C. (1984) "Explanation and Realism", in Leplin, J (ed.), Scientific Realism, Berkeley: University of California Press. [Repr. in Churchland, P & Hooker, C (eds.) Images of Science, Chicago: UCP, 1985]
  • Kitcher, P. (1981) "Explanatory Unification" PhilSci 48, pp. 507-531.
  • Kitcher, P. (1985) "Two Approaches to Explanation", JPhil, LXXXII. pp. 632-39
  • Körner, S. ed. (1975) Explanation, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Lewis, D. (1986) "Causal Explanation", in his Philosophical Papers Vol. II, Oxford: OUP.
  • Pitt, J. ed. (1988) Theories of Explanation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rescher N. (1970) Scientific Explanation, New York: The Free Press.
  • Salmon, W. C. (1984) Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World, Princeton: PUP.
  • Sintonen, M. (1990) "How to Put Theories to Nature", in D. Knowles (ed.) Explanation and Its Limits, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Sober, E. (1984) "Common Cause Explanation" Phil.Sci. 51, p. 212-241.
  • Sober, E. (1985) "A Plea for Pseudo-Processes" Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66, pp. 303-9.
  • Sober, E. (1988) "Equilibrium Explanation" Philosophical Studies 43, p. 201-210.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1985) "Salmon on Explanation", JPhil, LXXXII, pp. 639-51
  • Von Wright, G.H. (1971) Explanation and Understanding, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Explicação estatística

  • Asquith, P D & Nickles, T eds. (1982) PSA,Vol. 2, Part IV, pp. 179-223, (papers by Salmon, Hanna, Fetzer & Humphreys).
  • Fetzer, J H (1981) "Probability and Explanation". Synthese 48, pp. 371-408
  • Hempel, C G (1962) "Deductive-Nomological vs. Statistical Explanation", in Feigl, H & Maxwell, G (eds.), MinnStud, vol. 3, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 98-169.
  • Hempel, C G (1965) Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: The Free Press, & London: Collier-Macmillan.
  • Hempel, C.G. (1968) "Maximal Specificity and Lawlikeness in Probabilistic Explanation", PhilSci 35, pp. 116-33.
  • Niiniluoto, I (1981) "Statistical Explanation Reconsidered" Synthese 48, pp. 437-72
  • Niiniluoto, I. (1982) "Statistical Explanation", in Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey, vol. 2, Floistad, G (ed.), The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 157-87.
  • Railton, P (1978) "A deductive-Nomological Model of Probabilistic Explanation", PhilSci, 45, pp. 206-26.
  • Railton, P. (1978) "A Deductive-Nomological Model of Probabilistic Explanation", PhilSci 45, pp. 206-226.
  • Salmon, W C (1971) Statistical Explanation and Statistical Relevance, USA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Salmon, W. C. (1970) "Statistical Explanation", in Colodny, R (ed.), The Nature and Function of Scientific Theories, USA; University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Salmon, W.C. (1965) "The Status of Prior Probabilities in Statistical Explanation", PhilSci 32, pp. 137-46.
  • Salmon, W.C. (1988) in J. Pitt (ed.) Theories of Explanation, Oxford: OUP.

Pragmatismo na explicação

  • Achinstein, P. (1983) "The Pragmatic Character of Explanation" PSA Vol.2, p. 275-92.
  • Achinstein, P. (1983) The Nature of Explanation, Oxford: OUP.
  • Bromberger, S. (1962) "An Approach to Explanation" in R.S. Butler (ed.) Analytical Philosophy, Second Series, Oxford: Basil-Blackwell.
  • Bromberger, S. (1966) "Why-Questions", in Colodny, R G (ed.), Mind and Cosmos, USA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Bunzl, M. (1993) The Context of Explanation, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Kitcher, P. & Salmon, W. C. (1987) "van Fraassen on Explanation", JPhil, LXXXIV pp. 315-30.
  • Lipton, P. (1990) "Contrastive Explanation" in Explanation and Its Limits (ed.) D. Knowles, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Putnum, H. (1978) Meaning and the Moral Science, London: Routledge (lecture III).
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: Clarendon Press (Ch. 5).

Explicação narrativa

  • Goudge, T.A. (1961) The Ascent of Life, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, pp. 70ff.
  • Hull, D. (1975) "Central Subjects and Historical Narratives", History and Theory 14, p. 253-274.
  • Roth, P. (1988) "Narrative Explanations: The Case of History" History and Theory 27, p. 1-13.
  • Ruse, M. (1971) "Narrative Explanation and the Theory of Evolution" Canadian JPhil, p. 59.

3. A natureza das teorias científicas

  • Aronson, J., R. Harre & E. Way (1994) Realism Rescued, London: Duckworth, Ch. 3-5.
  • Baur, M. (1990) "The Aim of Scientific Theories in Relating to the World: A Defense of the Semantic View", Dialogue, p. 323.
  • Braithwaite, R. (1953) Scientific Explanation, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 2.
  • Carnap, R. (1956) "The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts" MinnStud Vol. I, Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press, p. 38.
  • Churchland, P.M. (1990) "On the Nature of Theories: A Neurocomputational Perspective", MinnStud XIV, Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press, pp. 59-101.
  • de Costa, N.C.A., & S. French (1990) "The Model-Theoretic Approach in the Philosophy of Science", PhilSci 57, pp. 248-265.
  • Downes, S. (1992) "The Importance of Models in Theorizing: A Deflationary Semantic View", PSA Vol 1, p. 142.
  • Giere, R. (1988) Explaining Science, Chicago: UCP, Ch. 3.
  • Hempel, C. (1972) "Formulation and Formalization of Scientific Theories: A Summary Abstract" in F. Suppe (ed.) The Structure of Scientific Theories, Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.
  • Nagel, E. (1960) The Structure of Science, London, RKP, Ch. 5.
  • Redhead, M. (1980) "Models in Physics" BJPS 31, pp. 145-163.
  • Redhead, M. (1980) "Models in Physics", BJPS 31, pp. 145-163.
  • Richardson, R. (1986) "Models and Scientific Explanation" Philosophica 37, p. 59.
  • Suppe, F (1972) "What's Wrong With the Received View on the Structure of Scientific Theories?" PhilSci 39, p. 1.
  • Suppe, F. (1988) The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism, Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.
  • Suppes, P. (1969) Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer. [Artigos: "A Comparison of the Meaning and Uses of Models in Mathematics and the Empirical Sciences" and "Models of Data".]
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 3.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1987) "The Semantic Approach" in N. Nersessian (ed.) The Process of Science, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, pp. 105-124.
  • Wartofsky, M.W. (1974) Models: Representation and the Scientific Understanding, Dordrecht: Reidel.

[Ver também: "Models vs. axioms in evolutionary theory" na secção "Filosofia da Biologia".]

4. Idealização

  • Barr, W.F. (1971) "A Syntactic and Semantic Analysis of Idealizations in Science, PhilSci 38, p. 258.
  • Barr, W.F. (1974) "A Pragmatic Analysis of Idealizations in Physics" PhilSci 41, p. 48.
  • Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: OUP, Essay 6.
  • Cartwright, N. (1995) "False Idealization: A Philosophical Threat to Scientific Method" Philosophical Studies 77, pp. 339.
  • Giere, R. (1988) Explaining Science, Chicago: UCP, Ch. 3.
  • Laymon, R. (1985) "Idealizations and the Testing of Theories by Experimentation", in Observation Experiment and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, P. Achinstein and O. Hannaway (eds), Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press.
  • Laymon, R. (1995) "Experimentation and the Legitimacy of Idealization", Philosophical Studies 77.
  • McMullin, E. (1985) "Galilean Idealization", HistPhilSci 16, p. 247.
  • Nowak, L. (1972) "Laws of Science, Theories, Measurement: Comments on E. Nagel's The Structure of Science" PhilSci. 39, p. 533.
  • Scwartz, J.R. (1978) "Idealizations and Approximations in Physics" PhilSci 45, p. 595.
  • Shrader-Frechette, K.S. (1989) "Idealized Laws, Anti-Realism, and Applied Science: A Case Study in Hydrogeology" Synthese 81, p. 329.
  • Worrall, J. (1982) "Scientific Realism and Scientific Change", PhilQuart 32, p. 210.

5. Verosimilhança

  • Aronson, J., R. Harré, & E. Way (1994) Realism Rescued, London: Duckworth, Ch. 6.
  • Brink, C. (1989) "Verisimilitude: Views and Reviews" , History and Philosophy of Logic 10, pp. 181-201.
  • Cohen, L.J. (1980) "What Has Science to Do With Truth?" Synthese 45, p. 489.
  • Kuipers, T. A. F. (1982) "Approaching Descriptive and Theoretical Truth", Erkenntnis 18, pp. 343-378.
  • Laymon, R. (1985) "Idealizations and the Testing of Theories by Experimentation", in Observation Experiment and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, P. Achinstein and O. Hannaway (eds), Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press.
  • Miller, D. (1978) "The Distance Between Constituents" Synthese 38, p. 197-212.
  • Mortensen, C. (1983) "Relevance and Verisimilitude" Synthese 55 (1983) p. 353-364.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: RKP, Ch. VIII
  • Niiniluoto, I. (1987) Truthlikeness, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Niiniluoto, I. (1989) "Corroboration, Verisimilitude, and the Success of Science", in Imre Lakatos and Theories of Scientific Change, K. Gavroglu, Y. Goudaroulis and P. Nicolacopoulos, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Oddie, G. (1978) "Verisimilitude and Distance in Logical Space" Acta Philosophica Fennica 30.
  • Oddie, G. (1979) "Verisimilitude Reviewed" BJPS 32, p. 237.
  • Popper, K. (1959) Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson
  • Popper, K. (1963) Conjectures and Refutations, London: RKP.
  • Popper, K. (1972) Objective Knowledge, London: RKP.
  • Resnik, D.B. (1992) "Convergent Realism and Approximate Truth", PSA Vol. 1, pp. 421-434.
  • Tichy, P. (1976) "Verisimilitude Redefined" BJPS 27, pp. 25-42.
  • Urbach, P. (1983) "Intimations of Similarity: The Shaky Basis of Verisimilitude" BJPS 34, p. 266-273.

6. Significado e referência dos termos científicos

Abordagens positivistas: operacionalismo, eliminativismo e o modelo da linguagem dual

  • Benjamin, A.C. (1955) Operationism, Springfield: Thomas.
  • Bridgman, P.W. (1960) The Logic of Modern Physics, New York: Macmillan.
  • Carnap, R. (1956) "The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts" in Feigl & Scriven (eds.) MinnStud, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp.38-76.
  • Cornman, J.W. (1972) "Craig's theorem, Ramsey-sentences and Scientific Instrumentalism", Synthese, 25, pp.82-126.
  • Craig, W. (1956) "Replacement of Auxiliary Expressions", PhilRev, 65, pp.38-55.
  • Gillies, D.A. (1972) "Operationalism", Synthese, 25, pp.1-24.
  • Hempel, C. (1965) "The Theoretician's Dilemma" in his Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: Free Press [orig. in MinnStud Vol 2]
  • Hesse, M. (1952) "Operational definition and analysis in physical theory", BJPS pp.281-94.
  • Lewis, D. (1970) "How to Define Theoretical Terms", JPhil 67 pp. 427-46 [Repr. in his Philosophical Papers Vol. 1, Oxford: OUP (1987)]
  • Putnam, H. (1965) "Craig's Theorem", repr. in Mathematics, Matter and Method, Philosophical Papers Vol. 1, Cambridge: CUP, pp.228-236.
  • Putnam, H. (1965) "What theories are not" reprinted in his Mathematics, Matter & Method, Phil. Papers Vol. 1, Cambridge: CUP 1975, pp. 215-227.
  • Ramsey, F.P. (1931) "Theories" in Foundations of Mathematics and other Logical Essays, London & New York: Humanities.

Abordagens pós-positivistas: holismo, incomensurabilidade e referência directa

  • Boyd, R. (1979) "Metaphor and Theory Change: What is "Metaphor" a Metaphor For?", in A. Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Cummisky, D. (1992) "Reference Failure and Scientific Realism: A response to the meta-induction", BJPS, 43, 1, 21-40.
  • Devitt, M. (1979) "Against Incommensurability", Australasian JPhil, 57, pp. 29-50.
  • Feyerabend, P. (1965) "On the "Meaning" of Scientific Terms", JPhil 62, pp. 266-74.
  • Field, H. (1973) "Theory Change and the Indeterminacy of Reference", JPhil 70, pp. 462-81.
  • Fine, A. (1975) "How to Compare Theories: Reference and Change", Nous, 9, pp. 17-32.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: CUP, ch.6.
  • Hesse, M. (1974) The Structure of Scientific Inference, Basingstoke: Macmillan, Chs. 1,2.
  • Kitcher, P. (1978) "Theories, Theorists & Theoretical Change", PhilRev, 87, pp. 519-547.
  • Kripke, S. (1972) Naming and Necessity, Oxford: Blackwell, esp. Lecture III.
  • Kuhn, T. S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: UCP, 2nd edn., esp. Sec. 5, 10.
  • Kuhn, T. S. (1982) "Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability", PSA Vol. 2, pp. 669-688.
  • Kuhn, T.S. (1990) "Dubbing and Redubbing: The Vulnerability of Rigid Designation" in Wade Savage (ed.) MinnStud XIV, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 298-318.
  • Leplin, J. (1988) "Is Essentialism Unscientific?", PhilSci, 55, pp. 493-510.
  • Levine, M. (1979) "On Theory-Change and Meaning-Change", PhilSci, 46, pp. 407-424.
  • Muhlholzer, F. (1995) "Science without Reference?", Erkenntnis, 42, 2, pp. 203-222.
  • Nersessian, N. (1984) Faraday to Einstein: Constructing Meaning in Scientific Theories, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Nersessian, N. J. (1987) "A cognitive-historical approach to meaning in scientific theories", in Nersessian (ed.) The Process of Science, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, ch.7.
  • Nola, R. (1980) "Fixing the Reference of Theoretical Terms", PhilSci., 47, pp. 505-531.
  • Papineau, D. (1979) Theory and Meaning, Oxford: OUP, chs.1, 2 & 5.
  • Pearce, G. & Maynard, P. (eds.) (1973) Conceptual Change, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Putnam, H. (1978) Meaning and the Moral Sciences, London: Routledge, Lectures I-VI.
  • Putnam, H. (1979) Mind, Language and Reality, Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge: CUP, (esp. "The Meaning of Meaning").
  • Salmon, N. U. (1982) Reference and Essence, Oxford: Blackwell, esp. Ch. 4.
  • Sampson, C. (1975) "Theory Change in a Two-Level Science", BJPS 26, pp. 303-17.
  • Sankey, H. (1991) "Translation Failure between theories", HistPhilSci, pp. 223-236.
  • Sankey, H. (1994) The Incommensurability Thesis, Avebury: Brookfield.
  • Shapere, D. (1966) "Meaning and Scientific Change", in Colodny, R. (ed.), Mind and Cosmos, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 41-85.
  • Shapere, D. (1982) "Reason, Reference and the Quest for Knowledge", Phil.Sci., 49, pp. 1-23.
  • Shapere, D. (1989) "Evolution and Continuity in Scientific Change", Phil.Sci., 56, pp. 419-437.

7. Teoria e observação

  • Achinstein, P. (1968) Concepts of Science, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, Chs. 5&6.
  • Achinstein, P. and O. Hannaway (1985) Observation, Experiment and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press. [See papers by Sklar, Shapere, and Boyd]
  • Bogen, J. & Woodward, J. (1988) "Saving the Phenomena", PhilRev, 97, pp. 303-52.
  • Brown, H. I. (1987) Observation and Objectivity, New York: OUP.
  • Brown, H.I. (1987) "Naturalizing Observation" in Nersessian, N.J. (ed.) The Process of Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Churchland, P. (1979) Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind, Cambridge: CUP (Chs. 1 &2).
  • Churchland, P. (1985) "The Ontological Status of Observables: in Praise of Superempirical Virtues", in Churchland, P. & Hooker, C. (eds.), Images of Science, Chicago: UCP.
  • Fodor, J. (1984) "Observation Reconsidered", PhilSci 51, pp. 23-43.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: CUP, ch.10.
  • Hanson, N. R. (1958) Patterns of Discovery, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Hesse, M. (1970) "Is there an independent observation language?", in Colodny (ed.) The Nature and Function of Scientific Theories, Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Hesse, M. (1974) The Structure of Scientific Inference, Basingstoke: Macmillan, Chs. 1,2.
  • Kordig, C. (1971) The Justification of Scientific Change, Dordrecht: Reidel, ch.1.
  • Maxwell, G. (1962) "The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities", in MinnStud, vol. 3, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Nagel, E. (1981) The Structure of Science, London: Routledge, ch.5.
  • Nagel, E., Bromberger, S. & Grünbaum, A. (eds.) (1971) Observation and Theory in Science, Baltimore & London: John Hopkins Press.
  • Newton-Smith, W. H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, ch.2.
  • Papineau, D. (1979) Theory and Meaning, Oxford: OUP, ch.1.
  • Putnam, H. (1975) "What Theories are Not", in Mathematics, Matter and Method, Collected Papers Vol. 1, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1970) "Grades of Theoreticity" in Foster, L. & Swanson, J.W. (eds.), Experience and Theory, Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, pp.1-18.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1990) Pursuit of Truth, Harvard: HUP, Pt.1.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1993) "In Praise of Observation Sentences", JPhil, 90 (3), pp.107-116.
  • Scheffler, I. (1963) The Anatomy of Inquiry, New York: Knopf, pp.164ff.
  • Sellars, W.F. (1963) "Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind", in Science, Perception and Reality, London: Routledge, pp.127-196.
  • Shapere, D. (1982) "The Concept of Observation in Science and Philosophy", PhilSci, 49, pp. 485-52.
  • Sklar, L. (1985) "Modestly Radical Empiricism", reprinted in his Philosophy and Space-Time Physics, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, ch.2.
  • Wright, C. (1993) "Scientific Realism and Observation Sentences", International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 1, 2, pp.231-254.

8. Confirmação

  • Achinstein, P. (ed.) (1983) The Concept of Evidence, Oxford: OUP (esp. papers by Salmon, Goodman, Carnap, Achinstein and Glymour.)
  • Ayer, A. J. (1972) Probability and Evidence, London: Macmillan, Pt. I.
  • Black, M. (1966) "Notes on the Paradoxes of Confirmation", in Hintikka, J & Suppes, P (eds.), Aspects of Inductive Logic, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Blackburn, S. (1973) Reason and Prediction, Cambridge: CUP
  • Carnap, R. (1950) Logical Foundations of Probability, Chicago: UCP, Ch. 1, 2, 7.
  • Carnap, R. (1968) "Inductive Logic and Inductive Intuition" in Lakatos, I. (ed.) The Problem of Inductive Logic, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.258-314.
  • Chihara, C. (1987) "Some Problems for Bayesian Confirmation Theory", BJPS 38, pp.551-560.
  • Cohen, L.J. (1970) The Implications of Induction, London: Methuen
  • Earman, J (ed.) (1983) Testing Scientific Theories, MinnStud Vol 10, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Earman, J. (1992) Bayes or Bust? A Critical Examination of Bayesian Confirmation Theory, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, esp. Ch. 1-3, 6.
  • Glymour, C. (1980) Theory and Evidence, Princeton: PUP, esp. Ch. 1-3.
  • Goodman, N. (1983) Fact, Fiction and Forecast, Harvard: HUP (4th ed.), Ch. 3.
  • Hempel, C G. (1948) "Studies in the Logic of Confirmation" reprinted in Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: The Free Press, & London: Collier-Macmillan, 1965.
  • Hintikka, J. & Suppes, P. (eds.) (1966) Aspects of Inductive Logic, Dordrecht: Reidel (esp. papers by Black and Suppes).
  • Horwich, P. (1982) Probability and Evidence, Cambridge: CUP, esp. Ch. 1-4.
  • Howson, C. & Urbach, P. (1989) Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach, La Salle: Open Court, esp. Ch. 1-4.
  • Lakatos, I. (1968) "Changes in the Problem of Inductive Logic" in Lakatos (ed.) The Problem of Inductive Logic, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.315-417.
  • Mackie, J. L. (1963) "The Paradox of Confirmation", BJPS 13, pp. 265-77.
  • Maher, P. (1993) Betting on Theories, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Miller, R W. (1987) Fact and Method, Princeton: PUP.
  • Popper, K. & Miller, D.W.(1983) "A Proof of the Impossibility of Inductive Probability", Nature 302, pp.687-688.
  • Putnam, H. (1963) "Probability and Confirmation" reprinted in Mathematics, Matter and Method: Collected Papers Vol. 1 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: CUP, pp.293-304.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1969) "Natural Kinds", reprinted in Ontological Relativity, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Redhead, M. (1985) "On the Impossibility of Inductive Logic", BJPS 36, pp.185-191.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1961) Experience and Prediction, Chicago: UCP, Ch. 5.
  • Rosenkrantz, R.D. (1981) Foundations and Applications of Inductive Probability, Atascadero, California: Ridgeview Press.
  • Swinburne, R.G. (1971) "The Paradoxes of Confirmation — A Survey", APQ 8.
  • Swinburne, R.G. (1973) An Introduction to Confirmation Theory, London: Metheun, esp. Ch. 1-3.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1988) "The Problem of Old Evidence", in Austin, D.F. (ed.) Philosophical Analysis, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Vickers, J. (1988) Chance and Structure, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Watkins, J. W.N. (1984) Science and Scepticism, London: Hutchinson, Pt. I.

9. Subdeterminação

  • Ben-Menahem, Y. (1990) "Equivalent Descriptions", BJPS 41, pp.261-279.
  • Bergström, L. (1984) "Underdetermination and Realism", Erkenntnis 21, pp.349-365.
  • Bergström, L. (1990) "Quine on Underdetermination", in Barrett, R. & Gibson, R. (eds.)Perspectives on the Philosophy of Quine, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Bergstrom, L. (1993) "Quine, Underdetermination and Skepticism", JPhil 90, 7, pp.331-358.
  • Boyd, R. (1973) "Realism, Underdetermination, and a Causal Theory of Evidence" Nous, 7, pp. 1-12.
  • Earman, J. (1993) "Underdetermination, Realism and Reason", in French, Uehling & Wettstein (eds.) Midwest Studies in Philosophy Vol. 18, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, pp.19-38.
  • Hoefer, C. & Rosenberg, A. (1994) "Empirical Equivalence and Systems of the World", PhilSci 61, 4, pp.592-607.
  • Horwich, P. (1982) "How to Choose between Empirically Indistinguishable Theories", JPhil 79, pp.61-77.
  • Jardine, N. (1986) The Fortunes of Inquiry, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Kukla, A. (1994) "Non-empirical theoretical virtues and the argument for underdetermination", Erkenntnis 41, 2, pp.157-170.
  • Laudan, L. (1990) "Demystifying Underdetermination" in Wade-Savage (ed.) MinnStud, Vol. 14, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 267-297.
  • Leplin, J. & Laudan, L. (1991) "Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination", JPhil, 88, pp.449-472.
  • Newton-Smith, W. H. (1978) "The Underdetermination of Theory by Data", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. vol. 52, pp. 71-91.
  • Newton-Smith, W. H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, Ch. 2.
  • Quine, W. V. O. (1975) "On Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World", Erkenntnis, 9, pp. 313-28.
  • Quine, W. V. O. (1979) "Comments on Newton-Smith", Analysis, 39, pp. 66-67.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1990) "Three Indeterminacies", in Barrett, R. & Gibson, R. (eds.) Perspectives on the Philosophy of Quine, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, ch.3.
  • Wilson, M. (1980) "The Observational Uniqueness of Some Theories", JPhil 77, pp.208-33.
  • Worrall, J. (1982) "Scientific Realism and Scientific Change" PhilQuart 32

10. A tese de Quine-Duhem

  • Barrett, R. (1969) "On the Conclusive Falsification of Scientific Hypotheses", PhilSci 36, pp.363-374.
  • Bremner, A.A. (1990) "Holism a Century Ago: The Elaboration of Duhem's Thesis", Synthese, 83, 3, pp.325-336.
  • Duhem, P. (1962) The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, New York: Atheneum, Ch. 6-7.
  • Duhem, P. (1969) To Save the Phenomena, Chicago: UCP.
  • Glymour, C. (1980) Theory and Evidence, Princeton: PUP.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1966) "The Falsifiability of a Component of a Theoretical System", in Feyerabend & Maxwell (eds.) Mind, Matter and Method, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1971) "Can we ascertain the falsity of a scientific hypothesis?", in Nagel, Bromberger and Grünbaum (eds.) Observation and Theory in Science, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, pp.69-129.
  • Harding, S. (ed.) (197?) Can Theories be Refuted? Essays on the Duhem/Quine Thesis, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Krips, H. (1982) "Epistemological Holism: Duhem or Quine?", HistPhilSci 13, pp.251-264.
  • Laudan, L. (1965) "On the Impossibility of Crucial Falsifying Experiments: Grünbaum on "The Duhemian Argument"" PhilSci 32, pp.295-299.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1953) "Two Dogmas of Empiricism", reprinted in From a Logical Point of View, Harvard: HUP.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1990) Pursuit of Truth, Harvard: HUP, ch.1.
  • Quinn, P. (1969) "What Duhem Really Meant" in Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. XIV, Dordrecht: Reidel, pp.33-56.
  • Quinn, P.L. (1969) "The Status of the D-thesis", PhilSci 36, pp.381-399.
  • Vuillemin, J. (1986) "On Duhem's and Quine's Theses" in Hahn, L.E. & Schillpp, P.A. The Philosophy of W.V. Quine, La Salle: Open Court, pp.595-618.
  • Wedeking, G. (1969) "Duhem, Quine and Grünbaum on Falsification", PhilSci 36, pp.375-380.
  • Worrall, J. (1993) "Falsification, Rationality and the Duhem Problem: Grünbaum versus Bayes", in Earman, J. et. al. (eds.) Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp.329-370.
  • Yoshida, R.M. (1975) "Discussion: Five Duhemian Theses", PhilSci 42, 1, pp.29-45.

11. Convencionalismo e o papel da convenção

  • Angel, R (1980) Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy, Oxford: Pergamon Press, ch.5.
  • Ellis, B. & Bowman, J. (1967) "Conventionality in Distant Simultaneity", PhilSci 34, pp. 116-136.
  • Friedman, M. (1972) "Grünbaum on the Conventionality of Geometry"; Synthese, 24, pp.219-235.
  • Giedymin, J (1982) Science and Convention, Oxford: Pergamon Press, esp. Ch. 1, 3, 4.
  • Glymour, C. (1972) "Physics by Convention", PhilSci 39, pp.322-340.
  • Grünbaum, A (1973) Philosophical Problems of Space and Time, Dordrecht: Reidel, 2nd enlarged edn., Part 1.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1961) "Law and Convention in Physical Theory", in Feigl, H & Maxwell, G, (eds.) Current Issues in the Philosophy of Science, New York: Holt, Rinehardt & Winston.
  • Horwich, P. (1975) "Grünbaum on the Metric of Space and Time", BJPS 26, pp.199-211.
  • Horwich, P. (1986) "A defence of conventionalism" in McDonald, G. (ed.) Fact, Science and Morality, Oxford: Blackwell, pp.163-187.
  • Nerlich, G. (1976) The Shape of Space, Cambridge: CUP, Chs. 5-9.
  • Poincaré, H (1952) Science and Hypothesis, New York: Dover Publications, esp. Ch. 3-5.
  • Poincaré, H. (1958) The Value of Science, New York: Dover Publications, Pt. 3.
  • Putnam, H (1975) "The Refutation of Conventionalism", in Mind, Language and Reality: Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1935) "Truth by Convention", reprinted in The Ways of Paradox and other essays, Harvard: HUP (1966) pp.77-106.
  • Redhead, M. (1993) "The Conventionality of Simultaneity" in Earman et. al. (eds.) Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1950) The Philosophy of Space and Time, New York: Dover Publications, esp. Ch. 1.
  • Salmon, W.C. (1969) "The Conventionality of Simultaneity", PhilSci 36, pp.44-63.
  • Sklar, L. (1974) Space, Time and Spacetime, Berkeley: California University Press, Ch. 2.
  • Sklar, L. (1985) Philosophy and Spacetime Physics, Berkeley: University of California Press,ch.3.
  • Suppes, P (ed.) (1973) Space, Time and Geometry, Dordrecht: Reidel (papers by Vuillemin, Glymour, & Friedman).
  • Swinburne, R. (1980) "Conventionalism about Space and Time", BJPS 31, pp. 255-272.
  • Winnie, Earman, Glymour, Salmon &
  • Malament (1977) Symposium on Space and Time, Nous 11, 3.

12. Valores epistémicos e virtudes teóricas

  • Adler, J.E. (1990) "Conservativism and Tacit Confirmation" Mind, pp. 559-70.
  • Bunge, M. (1963) The Myth of Simplicity, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
  • Foley, R. (1983) "Epistemic Conservativism" Philosophical Studies 43.
  • Friedman, K "Empirical Simplicity as Testability". BJPS 23, 1972, pp. 25-33.
  • Goldman, A. (1979) "Varieties of Cognitive Appraisal" Nous 13, pp. 23-38.
  • Goodman, N. (1972) Problems and Projects, New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Ch. VII.
  • Hesse, M The Structure of Scientific Inference, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1974, Ch. 10.
  • Hesse, M. (1967) "Simplicity" in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (ed.) Paul Edwards, N.Y. Macmillan.
  • Kuhn, T. (1977) "Objectivity, Value Judgement, and Theory Choice" in The Essential Tension, Chicago: UCP.
  • Kukla, A. (1994) "Non-Empirical Theoretical Virtues and the Argument from Underdetermination" Erkenntnis 41:2.
  • Kvanvig, J.L. (1989) "Conservativism and Its Virtues" Synthese 79.
  • McMullin, E. (1982) "Values in Science" PSA Vol. 2.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: RKP, pp. 112-117 and Ch. IX.
  • Popper, K. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson and Co., Ch. VII.
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1976) "On Simple Theories of a Complex World", in Ways of Paradox, Cambridge Mass: Harvard Univ. Press.
  • Sklar, L. (1975) "Methodological Conservativism" PhilRev 84, p. 398.
  • Sober, E. (1991) Reconstructing the Past: Evolution, Parsinomy, and Inference, Cambridge: MIT Press, Ch. 2-3.
  • Sober, E. (1975) Simplicity, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 1, 5.
  • Sober, E. (1990) "Contrastive Empiricism" MinnStud Vol. XIV (ed.) C. Wade Savage.
  • Sober, E. (1990) "Let's Razor Ockham's Razor" in Explanation and Its Limits (ed.) Dudley Knowles, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Swinburne, R. (1973) An Introduction to Confirmation Theory, London: Methuen & Co., Ch. VII.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, pp. 87-96.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1983) "Glymour on Explanation and Evidence" in MinnStud Vol. X (ed) J. Earman. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1984) "Empiricism in the Philosophy of Science" in Images of Science (ed.) P. Churchland and C. Hooker, Chicago: UCP, Pt. 1.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1989) Laws and Symmetry, Oxford: OUP, Pt. 1

13. Realismo e anti-realismo

Colectâneas

  • Hooker, C. A. & Churchland, P. M., eds. (1985) Images of Science, Chicago: UCP (esp. papers by Boyd, Churchland, Ellis, Hooker, Musgrave, and van Fraassen).
  • Leplin, J., ed. (1984) Realism, Berkeley: University of California Press, (esp. papers by McMullin, Boyd, Fine, & Leplin).
  • Nola, R., ed. (1988) Relativism and Realism in Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Papineau, D., ed. (1996) Philosophy of Science, Oxford: OUP.

Outros

  • Aronson, J., Harré, R. & Way, E. C. (1993) Realism Rescued, London: Duckworth.
  • Blackburn, B. (1993) "Truth, Realism and the Regulation of Theory", in Essays on Quasi-Realism, Oxford: OUP.
  • Boyd, R. (1973) "Realism, Underdetermination and a Causal Theory of Evidence", Nous 7, pp. 1-12.
  • Boyd, R. (1980) "Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology", PSA Vol. 2, pp. 613-662.
  • Boyd, R. (1989) "What Realism Implies and What It Does Not", Dialectica 43.
  • Boyd, R. (1990) "Realism, Approximate Truth, and Philosophical Method" in C. Wade Savage (ed.) Scientific Theories, MinnStud.
  • Brown, J. R. (1982) "The Miracle of Science", PhilQuart 32, pp. 232-44.
  • Brown, J. R. (1985) "Explaining the Success of Science" Ratio 27, pp. 49-66.
  • Brown, J.R. Smoke and Mirrors, London: Routledge.
  • Carrier, M. (1991) "What is Wrong with the Miracle Argument?", HistPhilSci 22, pp. 23-36.
  • Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: OUP (esp. essays 2-5).
  • Cartwright, N. (1994) "Fundamentalism vs. the Patchwork of Laws" PASS 93.
  • Churchland, P. M. (1979) Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Devitt, M. (1991) Realism and Truth, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Devitt, M. (1991) "Aberrations of the Realist Debate" Philosophical Studies 61.
  • Fine, A. (1986) "Unnatural Attitudes: Realist and Instrumentalist Attachments to Science", Mind 95, pp. 149-79.
  • Fine, A. (1986) The Shaky Game, Chicago: UCP.
  • Fine, A. (1991) "Piecemeal Realism", Philosophical Studies 6, pp. 79-96.
  • Giere, R. N. (1988) Explaining Science, Chicago: UCP.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 1, 16.
  • Harré, R. (1986) Varieties of Realism, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Hellman, G. (1983) "Realist Principles", PhilSci 50, pp. 227-49.
  • Hendry, F. R. (1995) "Realism and Progress: Why Scientists Should be Realists" in Fellows, R. (ed.) Philosophy and Technology, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Horwich, P. (1991) "On the Nature and Norms of Theoretical Commitment", PhilSci
  • Horwich, P. (1982) "Three Forms of Realism", Synthese 52, pp.181-201.
  • Jardine, N. (1986) The Fortunes of Inquiry, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Kitcher, P. (1993) The Advancement of Science, Oxford: OUP, Ch.5.
  • Kukla, A. (1994) "Scientific Realism, Scientific Practice and the Natural Ontological Attitude", BJPS 45, pp.955-975.
  • Laudan, L. (1977) Progress and its Problems, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
  • Laudan, L. (1984) "A Refutation of Convergent Realism" in Leplin, J., ed.
  • Leeds, S. (1994) "Constructive Empiricism", Synthese 101, pp. 187-221.
  • Leplin, J. (1992) "Realism and Methodological Change", PSA Vol. 2, pp. 435-445.
  • Levin, M. (1990) "Realisms", Synthese 85.
  • McAllister, J. W. (1993) "Scientific Realism and the Criteria for Theory Choice", Erkenntnis 38, 2, pp.203-222.
  • McMichael, A. (1985) "van Fraassen's Instrumentalism" BJPS 36.
  • McMullin, E. (1984) "The Goals of Natural Science", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association 58.
  • McMullin, E. (1991) "Comment: Selective Anti-Realism" Philosophical Studies 61.
  • Musgrave, A. (1992) "Discussion: Realism About What?" PhilSci 58.
  • Musgrave, A. (1989) "NOA's Ark—Fine for Realism" PhilQuart 39.
  • Newton-Smith, W. H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, Chs. 2, 8.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1988) "Modest Realism" PSA.
  • Papineau, D. (1987) Reality and Representation, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Psillos, S. (1995) "Is Structural Realism the Best of Both Worlds?" Dialectica 49.
  • Putnam, H. (1982) "Three Kinds of Scientific Realism", PhilQuart 32, pp. 195-200.
  • Putnam, H. (1982) Reason, Truth and History, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Putnam, H. (1987) The Many Faces of Realism, La Salle: Open Court.
  • Sellars, W. (1963) Science, Perception and Reality, London: Routledge, Ch. 1, 4.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1976) "To Save the Phenomena" JPhil 73.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1985) "Empiricism in the Philosophy of Science", in Churchland & Hooker (eds.).
  • Worrall, J. (1989) "Structural Realism: the Best of Both Worlds?" in Dialectica 43.
  • Worrall, J. (1982) "Scientific Realism and Scientific Change, PhilQuart 32, pp. 201-231.
  • Wylie, A. (1986) "Arguments for Scientific Realism: The Ascending Spiral", American Philosophical Quarterly, 23, pp. 287-97.

14. Inferência e explicação

  • Achinstein, P. (1992) "Inference to the Best Explanation: Or, Who Will Win the Mill-Whewell Debate", HistPhilSci 23, p. 349.
  • Ben-Menahem, Y. (1990) "The Inference to the Best Explanation" Erkenntnis, pp. 319-344
  • Brown, J.R. (1985) "Explaining the Success of Science" Ratio 27, p. 49.
  • Cartwright, N. (1983) "When Explanation Leads to Inference" How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: OUP, Essay 5.
  • Day, T. & Kincaid, H. (1994) "Putting Inference to the Best Explanation in its Place" Synthese 98.
  • Fine, A. (1984) "The Natural Ontological Attitude", in J. Leplin (ed.) Scientific Realism, Berkeley: Univ. California Press. [Repr. in his The Shaky Game (1986).]
  • Fine, A. (1986) "Unnatural Attitudes: Realist and Instrumentalist Attachments to Science" Mind 45, p. 149.
  • Harman, G. (1965) "The Inference to the Best Explanation", PhilRev 74.
  • Lipton, P. (198 ) Inference to the Best Explanation, London: RKP, esp Ch. 4.
  • Marino, M. (1988) "Inference to the Best Explanation: van Fraassen and the Case of the "Fifth Force"", ISPS 3, p. 35.
  • McMullin, E. (1987) "Explanatory Success and the Truth of Theory" in N. Rescher (ed.) Scientific Inquiry in Philosophical Perspective, N.Y.: Univ. Press of America.
  • Newton-Smith W.H. (1987) "Realism and Inference to the Best Explanation", Fundamenta Scientiae 7.
  • Psillos, S. (1996) "On van Fraassen's Critique of Absolute Reasoning", PhilQuart 46.
  • Ruben, D-H (1982) "Causal Scepticism or Invisible Cement", Ratio 24, p. 161.
  • Thagard, P. (1978) "The Best Explanation: Criteria for Theory Choice" JPhil 75.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 2
  • van Fraassen, B. (1989) Laws and Symmetry, Oxford: OUP, Part II.

15. Leis da natureza

  • Achinstein, P. (1971) Law and Explanation, Oxford: Clarendon Press,chs.1-3.
  • Armstrong, D (1983) What is a Law of Nature?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ayer, A J (1963) "What is a Law of Nature?", in The Concept of a Person, London: Macmillan.
  • Bigelow, J. & Pargetter, R. (1990) Science and Necessity, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 5.
  • Braithwaite, R. B (1959) Scientific Explanation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ch.9.
  • Carroll, J.W. (1994) Laws of Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 1, 4
  • Cartwright, N. (1989) Nature's Capacities and their Measurement, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (1994) "Fundamentalism vs. the Patchwork of Laws" PASS 93.
  • Dretske, F. I (1977) "Laws of Nature", Philosophy of Science, 44, pp. 248-68.
  • Goodman, N (1983) Fact, Fiction and Forecast, London: Harvard University Press, 4th ed., Ch. 1.
  • Harré, R (1970) The Principles of Scientific Thinking, London: Macmillan, Ch. 4.
  • Harré, R. (1993) Laws of Nature, London: Duckworth.
  • Lewis, D. (1973) Counterfactuals, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Lewis, D. (1987) "Network for a Theory of Universals", Australasian JPhil 61.
  • Lewis, D. (1994) "Human Supervenience Debugged" Mind Vol. 103.
  • Mellor, D H (ed.) (1980) Science, Belief and Behaviour, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (esp. essays 5 & 6).
  • Nagel, E (1961) The Structure of Science, London: Routledge, Ch. 4.
  • Ramsey, F. (1931) "General Propositions and Causality", in the Foundations of Mathematics, London: RKP.
  • Swartz, N (1985) The Concept of Physical Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tooley, M. (1977) "The Nature of Laws", Canadian JPhil, 7, pp.667-698.
  • Tooley, M. (1977) "The Nature of Laws", Canadian JPhil, 7, pp. 667-98.
  • Urbach, P (1988) "What is a Law of Nature?", BJPS 39, pp. 193-209.
  • Vallentyne, P. (1988) "Explicating Lawhood", PhilSci 55, pp.598-613.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1989) Laws and Symmetry, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pt. 2.
  • Woodward, J. (1992) "Realism about Laws", Erkenntnis, 36, pp.181-218.

16. A natureza da probabilidade

Geral e história

  • Daston, L. (1988) Classical Probability in Enlightenment, Princeton: PUP.
  • Gigerenzer, G. et al. (1989) The Empire of Chance, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Hacking, I. (1975) The Emergence of Probability, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shapiro, B. (1983) Probability and Certainty in Seventeenth-Century England: A Study of the Relation between Natural Science, Religion, History, Law, and Literature, Princeton: PUP.
  • Skryms, B. (1986—3rd ed.) Choice and Chance, Belmar CA: Wordsworth, Ch. 5-7
  • von Plato, J. (1994) Creating Modern Probability, Cambridge: CUP
  • Weatherford, R Philosophical Foundations of Probability Theory, London, Routledge, 1982

Outros

  • Ayer, A.J. (1957) "The Conception of Probability as a Logical Relation" in Observation and Interpretation: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium of the Colston Research Society, S. Körner (ed.), Butterworth: London.
  • Benenson, F.C. (1982) Probability, Objectivity, and Evidence, London: Routledge.
  • Carnap, R. (1952) The Continuum of Inductive Methods, Chicago: UCP.
  • Carnap, R. (1962) The Logical Foundations of Probability, London, Routledge.
  • Christensen, D. (1991) "Clever Bookies and Coherent Beliefs", PhilRev 100.
  • de Finetti, B. (1964) "Foresight: Its Logical Laws, Its Subjective Sources" in Studies in Subjective Probability, H.E. Kyburg Jr. & H.E. Smokler (eds.), New York: Wiley. [Originally written 1937.]
  • de Finetti, B. (1969) "Initial Probabilities: A Prerequisite for any Valid Induction", Synthese 20.
  • de Finetti, B. (1974) Theory of Probability, New York: Wiley.
  • de Finetti, B. (1989) "Probabilism", Erkenntnis 31. [Originally written 1931.]
  • Earman, J. (1992) Bayes or Bust?, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Ellis, B. (1968) Basic Concepts of Measurement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ch. XI
  • Giere, R.N. (1973) "Objective Single Case Probabilities and the Foundations of Statistics" in Logic, Methodology and the Philosophy of Science IV, P. Suppes & L. Henkin (eds.).
  • Giere, R.N. (1980) "Causal Systems and Statistical Hypotheses", in Cohen, L J & Hesse, M (eds.), Applications of Inductive Logic, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Gillies, D.A. (1973) An Objective Theory of Probability, London: Methuen & Co.
  • Hacking, I. (1967) "Slightly More Realistic Personal Probability", Philosophy of Science, 34, pp. 311-25
  • Hacking, I. (1971) "Equipossibility Theories of Probability", BJPS, 22, pp. 339-355
  • Hesse, M. (1974) The Structure of Scientific Inference, London: Macmillan, Ch. 7.
  • Horwich, P. (1982) Probability and Evidence, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Howson, C. & P. Urbach (1989) Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach, La Salle: Illinois: Open Court.
  • Jeffrey, R. (1970) "Dracula Meets Wolfman: Acceptance vs. Partial Belief", Induction, Acceptance, and Rational Belief, M. Swain (ed.) D. Reidel: Dordrecht.
  • Jeffrey, R. (1983—2nd ed.) The Logic of Decision, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
  • Jeffrey, R. (1992) Probability and the Art of Judgment, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 4. [Reprinted from Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, P. Achinstein & O. Hannaway (eds.) Boston: MIT Press.]
  • Jeffreys, H. (1939) Theory of Probability, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Keynes, J.M. (1957) A Treatise on Probability, New York: Macmillan
  • Kyberg, H.E. (1970) Probability and Inductive Logic, London: Collier-Macmillan.
  • Kyburg, H. and H.E. Smokler (1964) Studies in Subjective Probability, New York: J.Wiley. [esp. o ensaio de de Finetti]
  • Lewis, D. (1980) "A Subjectivist's Guide to Objective Chance" in R. Jeffrey (ed.) Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability Vol. II, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press [reimp. in Lewis" Philosophical Papers Vol 2].
  • Logue, J. (1995) Projective Probability, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Lucas, J.R. (1970) The Concept of Probability, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Chs. II & IV.
  • Luckenbach, S.A. (1972) Probabilities, Problems and Paradoxes, Vencino CA: Dickenson.
  • Mackie, J.L. (1973) Truth, Probability and Paradox, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 5
  • Mellor, D.H. (1971) The Matter of Chance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pap, A. (1963) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, London: Eyre and Spottiswode, Ch. 11.
  • Popper, K. (1959) "The Propensity Theory of Probability", BJPS, 10, pp. 25-42.
  • Ramsey, F. (1931/ new edn. 1978) The Foundations of Mathematics, Braithwaite, R B (ed.), London: Routledge, essays VII & VIII.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1949) The Theory of Probability, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Salmon, M.H. et. al. (1992) Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, pp. 66-100.
  • Salmon, W.C. (1966) The Foundations of Scientific Inference, USA: University of Pittsburgh
  • Savage, L.J. (1971) "Probability in Science: A Personalistic Account" in Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science IV, P. Suppes & L. Henkin (eds.).
  • Savage, L.J. (1972) Foundations of Statistics, New York: Dover
  • Sklar, L. (1970) "Is Probability a Dispositional Property?" JPhil LXVII.
  • Swinburne, R. (1973) An Introduction to Confirmation Theory, London: Methuen.
  • Swinburne, R.G. (1971) "The Probability of Particular Events", Philosophy of Science, 38, pp. 327-43
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 6
  • van Fraassen, B. (1984) "Belief and the Will" JPhil 81.
  • von Mises, R. (1957—2nd ed.) Probability, Statistics, and Truth, New York: Macmillan.
  • White, A.R. (1972) "The Propensity Theory of Probability", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 23, pp. 35-423.
  • Zabell, S.L. (1988) "Symmetry and its Discontents" in Causation, Chance, and Credence Vol. 1, B. Skyrms & W.L. Harper (eds.), Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Zabell, S.L. (1989) "The Rule of Succession" Erkenntnis 31.

17. Experimentação

  • Achinstein, P. & Hannway, O eds. (1985) Observation, Experiment and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. [esp. papers by Laymon and Galison]
  • Brown, J.R. (1988) "The Experimenter's Social Circle", Philosophy of Social Sciences 18, pp. 101-6.
  • Brown, J.R. (1989) The Rational and the Social, London: Routledge, Ch. 4.
  • Campbell, N.R. (1957) Foundations of Science: The Philosophy of Theory and Experiment, New York: Dover.
  • Collins, H. (1985) Changing Order, London: Sage.
  • Franklin, A. (1987) The Neglect of Experiment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Galison, P. (1987) How Experiments End, Chicago: UCP.
  • Galison, P. (1988) "Philosophy in the Laboratory", JPhil LXXXV, pp. 525-7.
  • Gooding, D. (1990) Experiment and the Making of Meaning, Dordrecht: Kluwer, esp. Part I.
  • Hacking, I (1988) "On the Stability of the Laboratory Sciences", JPhil, LXXXV, pp. 507-14.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Part B).
  • Harré R. (1981) Great Scientific Experiments, Oxford: Phaidon.
  • Heelan, P.A. (1988) "Experiment and Theory", JPhil, LXXXV, pp. 515-24.
  • Latour, B. & Woolgar, S. (1979) Laboratory Life, Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Shapere, D. (1982) "The Concept of Observation, in Science and Philosophy", PhilSci 49, pp. 485-525
  • Swenson, Loyd S. (1979) The Etherial Aether: A History of the Michelson-Morley Experiment, Texas: Austin.

18. Experiências mentais

  • Bohr, N (1949) "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics", in Schillpp, P A (ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, La Salle: Open Court.
  • Brown, J R (1986) "Thought Experiments Since the Scientific Revolution", ISPS 1, pp. 1-15.
  • Brown, J.R. (1991) The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences, London: Routledge.
  • Cole, D. (1984) "Thought and Thought Experiments", Philosophical Studies, 45, pp.431-444.
  • Hacking, I. (1992) "Do Thought Experiments have a life of their own?" PSA 2, pp.302-308.
  • Horowitz, T. & Massey, G.J. (eds.) (1991) Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Humphreys, P. (1993) "Seven Theses on Thought Experiments", in Earman, J. et. al. (eds.) Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External World, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Koyré, A (1968) "Galileo's Treatise De Motu: The Use and Abuse of Imaginary Experiment", in Metaphysics and Measurement, London: Capman and Hall.
  • Kuhn, T S (1977) "A Function for Thought Experiments", reprinted in The Essential Tension, Chicago: UCP.
  • Mach, E (1960) The Science of Mechanics, La Salle: Open Court, pp. 588ff.
  • Mach, E (1976) "On Thought Experiments", in Knowledge and Error, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Popper, K (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson, (Appendix XI).
  • Hull, D., M. Forbes & K. Okruhlike (1992) PSA 2 Part IX, Thought Experiments: The Theoretician's Laboratory, papers by Brown, Gooding, Nersessian and Hacking.
  • Rehder, W. (1980) "Thought Experiments and Modal Logics", Logique et Analyse,23, pp.407-417.
  • Rescher, N. (ed.) (forthcoming) Thought Experiments.
  • Sorensen, R.A. (1992) "Thought Experiments and the Epistemology of Laws", Canadian JPhil, 22, pp.15-44.
  • Sorensen, R.A. (1992) Thought Experiments, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wilkes, K W (1988) Real People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

19. Modelos e analogias

  • Achinstein, P. (1964) "Models, Analogies, and Theories", PhilSci 31, p. 328-350. [Articles also by Hesse and Agassi.]
  • Achinstein, P. (1968) Concepts of Science, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Chs. 7 & 8.
  • Black, M. (1962) Models and Metaphors, Ithaca NY:
  • Bunge, M. (1973) Method, Model and Matter, Dordrecht: D.Reidel, Chs. V, VI, VII.
  • Cartwright, N. (1980) How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 3.
  • Duhem, P. (1954) The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, Princeton: PUP, Ch. 4.
  • Giere, R. (1984) Understanding Scientific Reasoning (2nd Ed.), NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Giere, R. (1988) Explaining Science, Chicago: UCP, Ch. 3.
  • Harré, R. (1970) The Principles of Scientific Thinking, London: Macmillan, Ch. 2.
  • Harré, R. (1976) "The Constructive Role of Models", in Collins, L (ed.), The Use of Models in the Social Sciences, London: Tavistock.
  • Hempel, C. (1965) "Aspects of Scientific Explanation" in Aspects of Scientific Explanation, NY: Free Press, Sec. 6.
  • Hesse, M. (1966) Models and Analogies in Science, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Hesse, M. (1974) The Structure of Scientific Inference, Basingstoke: Macmillan, Ch. IX, XI.
  • Leatherdale, W.H. (1974) The Role of Analogy, Model and Metaphor in Science, NY: A.M. Elsevier.
  • Roper, J.E. (1982) "Models and Lawlikeness", Synthese 52, pp. 313-323.
  • Weitzenfeld, J. (1984) "Valid Reasoning by Analogy", PhilSci 51, pp. 137-49.
  • Wylie, A. (1988) ""Simple" Analogy and the Role of Relevance Assumptions", International Studies in Philosophy, 2.2, pp. 134-50.

[Veja-se também "Analogical reasoning in Darwin's Origin of Species" na secção "Filosofia da Biologia".]

20. Medição

  • Adams, E.W. (1966) "On the Nature and Purpose of Measurement", Synthese 16, pp. 125-69.
  • Campbell, N.R. (1957) Foundations of Science: The Philosophy of Theory and Experiment, New York: Dover, Part II.
  • Ellis, B. (1968) Basic Concepts of Measurement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Falmagne, J.C. (1966) "A Probabilistic Theory of Extensive Measurement", Synthese, 16, pp. 125-69.
  • Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and Intervening, Cambridge,: Cambridge University Press, Ch. 4.
  • Holman, E.W. (1974) "Extensive Measurement without an Order Relation", Philosophy of Science 41, pp. 361-73
  • Johnson, P. (1997) Constants of Nature.
  • Kanger, S. (1972) "Measurement; An Essay in the Philosophy of Science", Theoria, XXXVIII, pp. 1-44
  • Körner, S. (1972) Experience and Theory, London: Routledge, Ch. X.
  • Krantz, D.H., Luce, R.D., Suppes, P. & Tversky, A. (1971) Foundations of Measurement, New York: Academic Press.
  • Kuhn, T.S. (1961) "The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science", Isis 52, pp. 161-93. [Reprinted in The Essential Tension, Chicago: UCP, 1977.]
  • Kyberg, H.E. (1968) Philosophy of Science: A formal Approach, New York: Macmillan, Ch. 3.
  • Kyburg, H.E. (1984) Theory and Measurement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lucas, J.R. (1984) Space, Time and Causality, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. VI.
  • Narens, L. (1974) "Measurement without Archimedean Axioms", Philosophy of Science 41, pp. 374-93.
  • Suppes, P. (1957) Introduction to Logic, Princeton: Van Nostrand, Chs. 8-12.

[Ver também "The measurement problem", na secção "Filosofia da Biologia".]

21. História da ciência (pré-século XX)

Estudos gerais

  • Crombie, A.C. (1970) Augustine to Galileo, London.
  • Crombie, A.C. (1994) Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition, London: Duckworth.
  • Dreyer, J.L.E. (1976) A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler, Dover.
  • Hall, A.R. (1983) The Revolution in Science 1500-1790, London.
  • Olby, R.C. et.al, eds. (1990) Companion to the History of Modern Science, London.

Copérnico

  • Copernicus (1976) On the Revolutions, A.M. Duncan (trans.), Newton Abbot.
  • Westman, R.S. (1975) The Copernican Achievement, Berkeley: U. of California Press.

Galileu

  • Entry on Galileo in Dictionary of scientific biography (1972-1980), 16 vols., New York.
  • Drake, S., ed. (1957) Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo.
  • Drake, S. (1990) Galileo, Pioneer Scientist, Toronto: U. of Toronto Press.
  • Galileo (1953) Dialogue Concerning the Two Principal Systems of the World, S. Drake (trans.), Berkeley: U. of California Press.
  • Galileo (1974) Discourse on Two New Sciences, S. Drake (trans.), Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press.
  • Geymonat, L. (1965) Galileo Galilei, New York.

A revolução química

  • Entry on Lavoisier in Dictionary of scientific biography (1972-1980), 16 vols., New York.
  • Brock, W.H. (1992) The Fontana History of Chemistry, London: Fontana, Ch. 2 & 3.
  • Guerlac, H. (1961) Lavoisier, the Crucial Year: The background and origin of his first experiments on combustion in 1772, Ithaca: Cornell U. Press.
  • Holmes, F.L. (1989) Eighteenth-Century Chemistry as an Investigative Enterprise, Berkeley: U. of California Press.

Faraday e o electromagnetismo

  • Entries on Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), in Dictionary of scientific biography (1972-1980), 16 vols., New York.
  • Faraday, Michael (1855) Experimental Researches in Electricity, London.
  • Niven, D. ed. (1890) The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Swenson, L. (1972) The Ethereal Aether, Austin: U. of Texas Press.
  • Whittaker, E.T. (1989) A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Dover.
  • Williams, L.P. (1965) Michael Faraday: A biography, London.

22. Positivismo lógico

  • Achinstein, P. & S. Hooker, eds. (1969) The Legacy of Logical Positivism, Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Ayer, A.J. ed. (1959) Logical Positivism, New York: Free Press.
  • Ayer, A.J. (1962) Language, Truth and Logic, London: Victor Gollanz.
  • Carnap, R. (1963) "Carnap's Intellectual Autobiography" in Schillpp, P (ed.) The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, (The Library of Living Philosophers), La Salle: Open Court.
  • Carnap, R. (1967) The Logical Structure of the World, London: Routledge.
  • Hanfling, O., ed. (1981) Essential Readings in Logical Positivism, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Kebel, T.E. (1996) "Anti-Foundationalism and the Vienna Circle's Revolution in Philosophy", BJPS 47.
  • McGuiness, B. ed. (1985) Moritz Schlick, Dordrecht: D.Reidel. [Reprint from Syntheses, Vol. 64, No. 5.]
  • Neurath, Carnap & Morris, eds. (1955) International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vols. I & 2, Chicago: UCP (esp. articles by Neurath and Carnap).
  • Neurath, O. (1973) Empiricism and Sociology, (Vienna Circle Collection, Vol. 1), Dordrecht: D.Reidel, esp. Ch. 9.
  • Neurath, O. (1983) Philosophical Papers 1913-46, (Vienna Circle Collection, Vol. 16), Dordrecht: D.Reidel.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1959) The Rise of Scientific Philosophy, Berkeley: U. of California Press.
  • Schlick, M. (1974) General Theory of Knowledge, Vienna & New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Schlick, M. (1979) Philosophical Papers, Two Vols.; Vol. 1, 1909-22, Vol. 2, 1925-36 (Vienna Circle Collection, Vol. 11), Dordrecht: D.Reidel.

23. Karl Popper

De Popper

  • Popper, K. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson, (esp. Chs. 1 to 6).
  • Popper, K. (1963) Conjectures and Refutations, London: Routledge.
  • Popper, K. (1973) Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press, corrected ed.

Sobre Popper

  • Achermann, R (1976) The Philosophy of Karl Popper, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Curtis, R (1986) "Are Methodologies Theories of Scientific Rationality?", BJPS, 37, pp. 135-61.
  • Feyerabend, P. (1985) "Popper's Objective Knowledge" & "The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes", in Problems of Empiricism, Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Feyerabend, P. (1975) Against Method, London: New Left Books, esp. Ch. 15.
  • Gillies, D. (1993) Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes, Cambridge: Blackwell.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1976) "Ad Hoc Auxiliary Hypotheses and Falsification". BJPS 27, pp. 329-62.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1976) "Is Falsifiability the Touchstone of Scientific Rationality? Karl Popper versus Inductivism", in Cohen, R.S., Feyerabend, P.K. & Wartofsky, M. (eds.) Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos, Dordrecht: Reidel, pp.213-252.
  • Grünbaum, A. (1976) "Is the Method of Bold Conjectures and Attempted Refutations Justifiably the Method of Science?", BJPS 27, pp. 105-36.
  • Lakatos, I. (1970) "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes", in Lakatos, I & Musgrave, A, (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Lakatos, I. (1978) Mathematics, Science and Epistemology, Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Miller, D. (1983) A Pocket Popper, London: Fontana.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, ch.3.
  • O'Hear, A. (1980) Karl Popper, London: Routledge.
  • O'Hear, A. (ed.) (1995) Karl Popper: Philosophy and Problems, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Schillpp, P (ed.) (1974) The Philosophy of Karl Popper, La Salle: Open Court (esp. paper by Putnam).

24. Thomas Kuhn

De Kuhn

  • Kuhn, T.S. (1962/70) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: UCP, 2nd enlarged edn. 1970.
  • Kuhn, T.S. (1977) The Essential Tension, Chicago: UCP.
  • Kuhn, T.S. (1982) "Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability", PSA Vol. 2, pp. 669-88, (see also papers by Kitcher, Hesse)

Colectâneas

  • Gutting, G. ed. (1980) Paradigms and Revolutions, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Hacking, I. ed. (1982) Scientific Revolutions, Oxford: OUP.
  • Harré, R. ed. (1975) Problems of Scientific Revolutions, Oxford: Oxford University Press (esp. paper by Popper).
  • Horwich, P. ed. (1993) World Changes, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. [See esp papers by Hacking, McMullin, and afterword by Kuhn.].
  • Lakatos, I & Musgrave, A eds. (1970) Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (esp. papers by Feyerabend, Kuhn & Watkins).

Crítica e comentário

  • Doppelt, G. (1978) "Kuhn's Epistemological Relativism", Inquiry, 21, pp. 33-86.
  • Giere, R.N. (1985) "Philosophy of Science Naturalized", Philosophy of Science, 52, pp. 331-56.
  • Fleck, L. (1935/English ed. 1979) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact, Chicago: UCP.
  • Hesse, M. (1972) "In Defence of Objectivity", Proceedings of the British Academy.
  • Hollis, M .& Lukes, S. eds. (1982) Rationality and Relativism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Hoyningen-Huene, P. (1993) Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: UCP.
  • Kitcher, P. (1993) The Advancement of Science, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 6.
  • Kordig, C.R. (1971) The Justification of Scientific Change, Dordrecht: D.Reidel.
  • Laudan, L. (1977) Progress and its Problems, London: Routledge.
  • Laudan, L. (1984) Science and Values: The Aims of Science and their Role in Scientific Debate, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Laudan, L. (1986) "Scientific Change: Philosophical Models and Historical Research", Synthese, p. 69
  • Laudan, L. (1987) "Relativism, Naturalism and Reticulation", Synthese, 71, pp. 221-34.
  • Longino, H. (1990) Science as Social Knowledge, Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, Ch. 2.
  • Malone, M. (1993) "Kuhn Reconstructed: Incommensurability Without Relativism" HistPhilSci 24, p. 69.
  • McAllister, J.M. (1986) "Theory Assessment in the Historiography of Science", BJPS 37.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, Ch. V.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1989) "Rationality, Truth, and the New Fuzzies" in Dismantling Truth: Reality in the Postmodern World, L. Appignanesi and H. Lawson (eds.) London: Weidenfield and Nicolson.
  • Rorty, R. (1980) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Ch. 7.
  • Salmon, M.H. et.al. (1992) Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Ch. 5.
  • Sankey, H. (1993) "Kuhn's Changing Concept of Incommensurability" BJPS 44, p. 759.
  • Scheffler, I. (1967) Science and Subjectivity, Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, esp. Ch. 1
  • Shapere, D. (1964) "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions", PhilRev, XXIII, pp. 383-94.
  • Stone, M. (1981) "A Kuhnian Model of Falsifiability" BJPS, p. 177.
  • Worrall J. (1990) "Scientific Revolutions and Scientific Rationality: The Case of the Elderly Holdout", MinnStud XIV, Minneapolis, Univ. Minnesota Press.

Estudos de casos

[As "Colectâneas" acima também incluem estudos de casos.]

  • Baumberger, J. (1977) "No Kuhnian Revolution in Economics", Journal of Economic Issues 11, pp. 1-20
  • Beardsley, P. (1974) "Political Science: The Case of the Missing Paradigm", Political Theory 2, pp. 46-61
  • Crane, D. (1980) "An Exploratory Study of Kuhnian Paradigms in Theoretical High-Energy Physics", Social Studies of Science, 10, pp. 23-54
  • Crowe, M. (1975) "Ten "Laws" Concerning Patterns of Change in Mathematics", Historica Mathematica 2, pp. 161-6
  • Dooley, P. (1982) "Kuhn and Psychology: the Rogers-Skinner, Day-Giorgi Debates", Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 12, pp. 272-290
  • Fang, J. (1973) "Is Mathematics and "Anomaly" in the Theory of Scientific Revolutions?", Philosophica Mathematics 16, pp. 92-101
  • Harvey, M.E. & Holly, B.P. (1981) "Paradigm, Philosophy and Geographic Thought", in Themes in Geographic Thought, London; Croom Helm, (Ch. 1)
  • Peterson, G. (1981) "Historical Self-Understanding in the Social Sciences: the use of Thomas Kuhn in Psychology", Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 11, pp. 1-30
  • Ruse, M. (1970) "The Revolution in Biology", Theoria 36, pp. 1-22
  • Urbach, P. (1974) "Progress and Degeneration in the "IQ Debate"", BJPS 25, pp. 99-135 & 235-59

25. Paul Feyerabend

De Feyerabend

  • Feyerabend, P.K. (1962) "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism" in Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science Vol. III, H. Feigl & G. Maxwell (eds.) Minneapolis: U. Minnesota Press.
  • Feyerabend, P.K. (1975) Against Method, London: New Left Books.
  • Feyerabend, P.K. (1977) "Changing Patterns of Reconstruction: review of W. Stegmüller: Theorienstrukturen und Theoriendynamik", BJPS 28.
  • Feyerabend, P.K. (1978) Science in a Free Society, London: New Left Books.

Sobre Feyerabend

  • Couvalis, S.G. (1989) Feyerabend's Critique of Foundationalism, Aldershot: Avebury Press.
  • Gunaratne, R.D. (1980) Science Understanding and Truth, Sri Lanka: Ministry of Higher Education Publications.
  • Laudan, L. (1989) "For Method: or, Against Feyerabend", in J.R. Brown & J. Mittelstrass (eds.) An Intimate Relation, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • McEvoy, J.G. (1975) "A "Revolutionary" Philosophy of Science: Feyerabend and the Degeneration of Critical Rationalism into Scepticial Fallibilism" PhilSci 42.
  • Machamer, P. (1973) "Feyerabend and Galileo: The Interaction of Theories, and the Reinterpretation of Experience", HistPhilSci 4.
  • Maia Neto, J.R. (1991) "Feyerabend's Scepticism" HistPhilSci 22.
  • Munévar, G. (eds.) Beyond Reason: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul Feyerabend, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: RKP.
  • Preston, J.M. (1997) Feyerabend: Philosophy, Science and Society, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Worrall, J. (1978) "Against Too Much Method", Erkenntnis 13.
  • Worrall, J. (1978) "Is the Empirical Content of a Theory Dependent on its Rivals?" in I. Niiniluoto & R. Tuomela (eds.) The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change, Acta Philosophica Fennica 30.

26. Imre Lakatos

De Lakatos

  • Lakatos, I. (1971) "History of science and its rational reconstructions" in Buck, R. C. and Cohen, R. S. (eds.) Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, VIII.
  • Lakatos, I. (1978) Philosophical Papers Vols. 1, 2, Worrall and Currie (eds.), Cambridge: CUP.

Sobre Lakatos

  • Breck & Yourgrau eds. (1970) Physics, Logic and History, New York: Plenum.
  • Cohen, R.S., P.K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky, eds. (1976) Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Feyerabend, P. (1981) Problems of Empiricism: Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Feyerabend, P. (1988) "Imre Lakatos", BJPS 26, pp. 1-18.
  • Hacking, I. (1979) "Imre Lakatos" Philosophy of Science", BJPS 30, pp. 381-410.
  • Hacking, I., ed. (1981) Scientific Revolutions, Oxford: OUP [esp. papers by Lakatos and Hacking].
  • Kuhn, T. S. (1970) "Notes on Lakatos", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science VIII, pp. 137-146.
  • Mayo, D. (1991) "Novel Evidence and Severe Tests", PhilSci., 58, pp. 523-552.
  • Musgrave, A. (1988) "Is there a Logic of Scientific Discovery?" LSE Quarterly 2:3, Autumn Issue.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: RKP.
  • Worrall, J. (1985) "Scientific Discovery and Theory-Confirmation" in Pitt, J. C. (ed.) Change and Progress in Modern Science, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Zahar, E. (1973) "Why did Einstein's Programme Supersede Lorentz's?" BJPS 24, pp. 95-123 & 2323-262.

27. Teorias da mudança científica

  • Feyerabend, P. (1963) "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism" Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science Vol. III, Minneapolis: Univ. of Minn. Press.
  • Hull, D (1988) Science as a Process, Chicago: UCP.
  • Kitcher, P. (1993) The Advancement of Science, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 3 and 4.
  • Kuhn, T.S. (1962/70) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: UCP, 2nd enlarged edn. 1970
  • Lakatos, I. (1970) "Falsification and the Methodology of Research Programmes" in Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.) Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Laudan, L. (1977) Progress and its Problems, London: RKP
  • Laudan, L. (1984) Science and Values: The Aims of Science and their Role in Scientific Debate, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Laudan, L. (1984) "A Confutation of Convergent Realism", in Leplin, J., ed. Realism, Berkeley: University of California Press [Repr. from PhilSci 48.]
  • Laudan, L. (1986) "Scientific Change: Philosophical Models and Historical Research", Synthese, p. 69
  • Popper, K. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson, (esp. Chs. 1 to 6).
  • Popper, K. (1962) "Truth, Rationality, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge", in his Conjectures and Refutations, New York: Basic Books.
  • Shapere, Dudley (1966) "Meaning and Scientific Change", in R.G. Colodny (ed.) Mind and Cosmos: Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh Press. [Repr. in I. Hacking (ed.) Scientific Revolutions, Oxford: OUP, 1981.]
  • Shapere, Dudley (1980) "The Character of Scientific Change", in T. Nickles (ed.) Scientific Discovery, Logic and Rationality, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Stegmüller, Wolfgang (1975) "Structures and Dynamics of Theories", Erkenntnis 9, pp. 75-100.
  • Stegmüller, Wolfgang (1977) "Accidental ("Non-substantial") Theory Change and Theory Dislodgment" in R.E. Butts and J. Hintikka (eds.) Historical and Philosophical Dimensions of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Dordrecht: Reidel.

28. O estudo social da ciência

  • Barnes, B. (1974) Scientific Knowledge and Sociological Theory, London: Routledge.
  • Barnes, B. (1982) T S Kuhn and Social Sciences, London: Macmillan.
  • Bloor, D. (1976) Knowledge and Social Imagery, London: Routledge, Ch. 1-3 and Afterword (in 2nd Edition)
  • Brannigan, G. (1981) The Social Basis of Scientific Discoveries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brown, J.R. (1989) The Rational and the Social, London: RKP.
  • Brown, J.R. ed. (1984) Scientific Rationality, the Sociological Turn, Dordrecht: D.Reidel.
  • Collins, H.M. (1985) Changing Order, London: Sage.
  • Collins, H.M. and S. Yearley (1992) "Epistemological Chicken", in A. Pickering (ed.) Science as Practice and Culture, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
  • Engelhardt, H.T. & Caplan, A.L. (1987) Scientific Controversies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Farley J. and G. Geison (1974) "Science, Politics, and Spontaneous Generation in Nineteenth-Century France: The Pasteur-Pouchet Debate" Bulletin of the History of Medicine 48, pp. 161-198.
  • Fleck, L. (1986) Cognition and Fact: Materials on Ludwig Fleck, R. Cohen and T. Schnelle (eds.) Dordrecht: D. Reidel, especially Fleck's essays from 1929, 1935, and 1936.
  • Forman, P. (1971) "Weimar Culture, Causality and Quantum Theory", Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 3 (ed.) R. McCormmach, pp. 1-116.
  • Fuller, S. (1989) Philosophy of Science and its Discontents, Colorado: Westview Press, Ch. 1.
  • Gilbert, G.N. & M. Mulkay (1982) "Warranting Scientific Belief" Social Studies of Science 12, pp. 383-408.
  • Gilbert, G.N. & M. Mulkay (1984) Opening Pandora's Box, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Hessen, B. (1971) "The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's Principia", in Bukharin, N. (ed.), Science at the Crossroads, London: Cass, pp. 146-212
  • Kitcher, P. (1990) "The Division of Cognitive Labor" JPhil, pp. 5-22.
  • Kitcher, P. (1993) The Advancement of Science: Science Without Legend, Objectivity Without Illusions, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 8.
  • Labinger, J. (1995) "Science as Culture: A View from the Petri Dish" Social Studies of Science 25, pp. 285-306
  • Lakatos, I. (1981) "History of Science and its Rational Reconstructions", in I. Hacking (ed.) Scientific Revolutions, Oxford: OUP.
  • Latour, B. & S. Woolgar (1979) Laboratory Life: the Social Construction of Scientific Facts, Los Angeles: Sage, esp. Ch. 4, 2, 3.
  • Latour, B. (1988) Science in Action, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  • McMullin, E. (1982) "Values in Science", PSA Vol. 2, pp. 3-28.
  • McMullin, E. ed. (1988) Construction and Constraint, Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.
  • Newton-Smith, W.H. (1981) The Rationality of Science, London: Routledge, Ch. 10.
  • Niininluoto, I. (1991) "Realism, Relativism, and Constructivism" Synthese 89, pp. 135-62.
  • Papineau, D. (1988) "Does the Sociology of Science Discredit Science?" in R. Nola (ed.) Realism and Relativism in Science, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Ravetz, J.R. (1971) Scientific Knowledge and its Social Problems, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Shapin, S. & S. Schaffer (1985) Leviathan and the Air Pump, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shapin, S. (1975) "Phrenological Knowledge and the Social Structure of Early Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh" in Annals of Science 32, pp. 219-243.
  • Shapin, S. (1982) "History of Science and its Sociological Reconstructions", in History of Science 20, pp. 157-211.
  • Sismondo, S. (1993) "Some Social Constructions", in Social Studies of Science 23, pp. 515-554. [Response by K. Knorr-Cetina.]

29. Valores não-epistémicos e a sua presença na ciência

  • Bleier, R. (1984) Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and its Theories on Women, Elmsford NY: Pergamon.
  • Bleier, R. ed. (1986) Feminist Approaches to Science, Elmsford NY: Pergamon.
  • Brown, J.R. (1989) The Rational and the Social, London: RKP, Ch. 1-3.
  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (1985) Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men, NY: Basic Books.
  • Gould, S.J. (1992) The Mismeasure of Man, London: Penguin.
  • Harding, S. & Hintikka, M. eds. (1983) Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectivies on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Dordrecht: Reidel. [Articles by Keller, Hubbard, and Hartstock.]
  • Harding, S. (1986) The Science Question in Feminism, Ithaca NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
  • Harding, S. (1991) Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, Ch. 1-7.
  • Harding, S. (1993) "Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What is Strong Objectivity?", in Feminist Epistemologies (eds.) L. Alcott and E. Potter, London: RKP.
  • Hubbard, R. (1990) The Politics of Women's Biology, New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press.
  • Keller, E.F. & H. Longino eds. (1996) Feminism and Science, Oxford: OUP.
  • Keller, E.F. (1983) A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintlock, NY: W.H. Freeman.
  • Keller, E.F. (1985) Reflections on Gender and Science, New Haven Conn: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Kuhn, T. (1977) "Values and Criteria for Theory-Choice" in his The Essential Tension, Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Press
  • Lewontin, R.C., S. Rose, & L.J. Kamin (1984) Not in Our Genes, N.Y.: Pantheon.
  • Longino, H. & R. Doell (1983) "Body, Bias, and Behaviour: A Comparative Analysis of Reasoning in Two Areas of Biological Science" Signs: Journal of Women and Culture 9:2.
  • Longino, H. (1990) Science As Social Knowledge, Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, Ch. 1, 4, 5.
  • Longino, H. (1992) "Taking Gender Seriously in the Philosophy of Science" PSA Vol. 1.
  • Longino, H. (1993) "Essential Tensions — Phase Two: Feminist, Philosophical, and Social Studies of Science", in A Mind of One's Own—Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity (eds.) C. Witt and L.M. Antony, Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Martin, J.R. (1988) "Science in a Different Style" 25:2, pp. 129-140.
  • Martin, J.R. (1989) "Ideological Critiques and the Philosophy of Science", PhilSci 56:1, pp. 1-22.
  • McMullin, E. (1982) "Values in Science" PSA Vol. 2, pp. 3-28.
  • Richardson, R. (1984) "Biology and Ideology: The Interpretation of Science and Values" PhilSci 51:2, pp. 396-420.
  • Rooney, P. (1992) "On Values in Science: Is the Epistemic/Non-Epistemic Distinction Useful?" PSA Vol. 1, pp. 23-35.
  • Schiebinger, L. (1989) The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science, Cambridge Mass: Harvard Univ. Press.
  • Tuana, N. ed. (1989) Feminism and Science, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1980) The Scientific Image, Oxford: OUP, pp. 87-96.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1984) "Empiricism in the Philosophy of Science" in Images of Science (ed.) P. Churchland and C. Hooker, Chicago: UCP, Pt. 1.

30. O debate entre Leibniz e Clarke

Leitura geral

  • Alexander, H.G., ed. (1956) The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, Mancester: Mancester U. Press.
  • Broad, C.D. (1975) Leibniz: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Koyre, A. (1956) From the Closed World of the Infinite Universe, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, Ch. 11 & 12. [Reprinted as "Leibniz and Newton" in Leibniz, H.G. Frankfurt (ed.), New York: Anchor Books.]
  • Ray, C. (1991) Time, Space, and Philosophy, London: RKP.
  • Russell, B. (1937) A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, London: George Allen and Unwin.
  • Smith, Q. & L.N. Oaklander (1995) Time, Change and Freedom, London: RKP.
  • Swinburne, R. (1968) Space and Time, London: Macmillan.
  • van Fraassen, B.C. (1970) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Space and Time, New York: Random House.

A teoria relacional do tempo

  • Barbour, J. (1994) "The Emergence of Time and its Arrow from Timelessness", in J. Halliwell et.al. (eds.) Physical Origins of Time Asymmetry, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Forbes, G. (1993) "Time, Events and Modality" in The Philosophy of Time, Oxford: OUP, R. LePoidevin & M. MacBeath (eds.).
  • Hooker, C.A. (1971) "The Relational Doctrines of Time and Space", BJPS.
  • Shoemaker, S. (1969) "Time Without Change", JPhil LXVI.
  • van Fraassen, B.C. (1970) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Space and Time, New York: Random House, Ch. 2 Sec. 1-2, Ch. 3 Sec. 1-2..

A noção de espaço absoluto

  • Arthur, M. (1994) "Space and Relativity in Newton and Leibniz", BJPS 45.
  • Barbour, J. (1989) Absolute or Relative Motion? Vol. I, Cambridge: CUP, 11.4-11.6.
  • Brown, J.R. (1991) The Laboratory of the Mind, London: RKP, Ch. 1, 2.
  • Burtt, E.A. (1924) The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science, London: RKP, Ch. 7.
  • Lacey, H.M. (1970) "The Scientific Intelligibility of Absolute Space", BJPS.
  • Laymon, R. (1978) "Newton's Bucket Experiment" Journal of the History of Philosophy, pp. 399-413.
  • Maudlin, T. (1993) "Buckets of Water and Waves of Spaces: Why Spacetime is Probably a Substance", BJPS 60.
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science, London: RKP, Ch. 8 Pt. 1.
  • Ray, C. (1991) Time, Space, and Philosophy, London: RKP, Ch. 5, 6.
  • Rynasiewicz, R. (1996) "By their properties, causes, and effects: Newton's Scholium on Time, Space, Place, and Motion—I. The Text; II. The Context" HistPhilSci 26, pp. 133-153 and 295-321.
  • Sklar, L. (1974) Space, Time, and Spacetime, Berkeley: U. of California Press, Ch. 3, Sec. A, B, C.
  • Swinburne, R. (1968) Space and Time, London: Macmillan, Ch. 3.
  • Teller, P. (1991) "Substance, Relations, and Arguments about the Nature of Space-Time", PhilRev 100.

A identidade dos indiscerníveis

  • Ayer, A.J. "Names and Descriptions" in his The Concept of a Person, and "The Identity of Indiscernibles" in his Philosophical Papers.
  • Black, M. (1952) "The Identity of Indiscernibles", Mind.
  • Broad, C.D. (1975) Leibniz: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 2.
  • Dummett, M. (1973) Frege: Philosophy of Language, London: Duckworth, Ch. 16 esp. pp. 543-4.
  • Hacking, I. (1975) "The Identity of Indiscernibles" JPhil.
  • Pears, D. (1955) "The Identity of Indiscernibles", Mind.
  • Strawson, P.F. (1959) Individuals, London: RKP, Part 1 Ch. 4.

O princípio da razão suficiente

  • Barbour, J. (1982) "Relational Concepts of Space and Time", BJPS 33.
  • Broad, C.D. (1975) Leibniz: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 2.
  • Parkinson, G.H.L. (1995) "Philosophy and Logic", in the Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, N. Jolly (ed.) Cambridge: CUP.
  • Russell, B. (1937) A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, London: George Allen and Unwin, Ch. 3.

Tipos de necessidade e tipos de liberdade

  • Brown, S. (1984) Leibniz, Brighton: Harvester, Ch. 9.
  • Leibniz, G.W. (1686) Discourse on Metaphysics, Ch. 13.
  • Mates, B. (1986) The Philosophy of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Language, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 4, 5, 6.

Física leibniziana

  • Broad, C.D. (1975) Leibniz: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 3.
  • Buchdahl, G. (1969) Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science, Oxford: OUP, Ch. III ("Leibniz: Science and Metaphysics").
  • Garber, D. (1995) "Leibniz, Physics, and Philosophy", in the Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, N. Jolly (ed.) Cambridge: CUP.
  • Papineau, D. Ch. 9 of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science, (ed.) R.S. Woolhouse.
  • Russell, B. (1937) A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, London: George Allen and Unwin, Ch. 7.

31. Filosofia da biologia

Obras gerais e colectâneas

  • Ayala, F. & Dobzhansky, T. eds. (1974) Studies in the Philosophy of Biology, London: Macmillan.
  • Grene, M. (ed.) (1983) Dimensions of Darwinism, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1972) On Evolution, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Ch. 1, 2, 6, 7.
  • Mayr, E. (1988) Towards a New Philosophy of Biology, Harvard: HUP.
  • Ridley, M. (1985) The Problems of Evolution, Oxford: OUP.
  • Ridley, M., ed. (1998) Evolution, Oxford: OUP.
  • Rosenberg, A. (1985) The Structure of Biological Science, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Ruse, M. (1988) Philosophy of Biology Today, New York: SUNY Press.
  • Ruse, M. (ed.) (1989) The Philosophy of Biology, New York: Macmillan.
  • Sober, E. (1993) Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: OUP.
  • Sober, E. (1994) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Mass.: MIT Press [2nd ed.].

Argumentos de Darwin

  • Darwin, C. (1964) On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, London: Penguin, Ch. 1-4, 5-7, 14.
  • Lloyd, E. (1983) "Darwin's Support for the Theory of Natural Selection", PhilSci 50, p.112-129.
  • Recker, D. (1987) "Causal Efficacy: The Structure of Darwin's Argument Strategy in the Origin of Species", Phil.Sci 54, p. 147-175.
  • Ruse, M. (1982) Darwinism Defended, Chapter 2.
  • Thagard, P. (1978) "The Best Explanation: Criteria for Theory Choice", JPhil 75, p. 76-92.

Argumentos por analogia na Origem das Espécies, de Darwin

  • Evans, L.T. (1984) "Darwin's Use of the Analogy Between Artificial and Natural Selection" Journal of the History of Biology 17, pp. 113-140.
  • Ruse, M. (1973) "The Value of Analogical Models in Science" Dialogue 12, pp. 246-253.
  • Waters, C. Kenneth (1986) "Taking Analogical Inference Seriously: Darwin's Argument From Artificial Selection", PSA Vol. 1. pp. 502-513.
  • Young, R.M. (1971) "Darwin's Metaphor: Does Nature Select?", The Monist 5, pp. 442-503.

Adaptacionismo, teoria da selecção natural e explicações evolucionistas

  • Bowler, P.J. (1977) "Darwinism and the argument from design: suggestions for a reevaluation", J. of the History of Biology 10.
  • Cain, A.J. (1964) "The Perfection of Animals", in Carthy, J.D. and Duddington, C.L. (eds.) Viewpoints in Biology 3, London: Butterworth.
  • Cronin, H. (1992) The Ant and the Peacock: Altruism and sexual selection from Darwin to today, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 7-35, 53-100 passim, 328-335, 344-347.
  • Dawkins, M.S. (1986) Unravelling Animal Behaviour, Essex: Longman, pp. 131-146.
  • Dawkins, R. (1986) The Blind Watchmaker, Essex, Longman, Ch. 1 and 3.
  • Dawkins, R. (1982) "Universal Darwinism", in Bendall, D. (ed.) Evolution from Molecules to Men, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Dennett, D. C. (1995) Darwin's Dangerous Idea, New York: Simon & Schwester, Ch. 8-10.
  • Gould, S. & Lewontin, R. (1979) "The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 205, pp.581-598 [Repr. in Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology.]
  • Griffiths, P. E. & Gray, R. D. (1994) Developmental Systems and Evolutionary Explanation, JPhil 91, pp. 277-304.
  • Lewontin, R.C. (1978) "Adaption", Scientific American 239 (3).
  • Lewontin, R.C. (1979) "Fitness, survival, and optimality" in Horn, Stairs, and Mitchell (eds.)
  • Lewontin, R.C. (1983) "The Organism as the Subject and Object of Evolution", Scientia 118.
  • Lloyd, E. (1988) The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory, Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1976) "Evolution and the theory of games", American Scientist 64.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1982) Evolution and the Theory of Games, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1984) "Game theory and the evolution of behaviour", Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1994) "Optimization Theory in Evolution", in Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Mass.: MIT Press [2nd ed.].
  • Maynard Smith, J. & E. Szathmáry The Major Transitions in Evolution.
  • Resnik, D. (1989) "Adaptionist Explanations", HistPhilSci 20, p. 193.
  • Ridley, M. (1985) "More Darwinian Detractors", Nature 318, pp. 124-125.
  • Sober, E. (1984) The Nature of Selection, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Wallace, A.R. (1889) Darwinism, London: Macmillan [3rd Edition], Ch. 1, 2, 5.
  • Williams, G.C. Plan and Purpose in Nature, New York: Harper Collins.
  • Williams, G. C. (1992) Natural Selection: Domains, levels, and challenges, Oxford: OUP.
  • Williams, G.C. (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought, Princeton NJ: PUP.

Modelos em biologia

  • Beatty, J. (1980) "What's Wrong With the Received View of Evolutionary Theory?" PSA Vol. 2, p. 410.
  • Collier, J. (1992) "Critical Notice of Paul Thompson's The Structure of Biological Theories", Canadian JPhil 22, p. 287.
  • Ereshefsky, M. (1991) "The Semantic Approach to Evolutionary Theory" Bio&Phil, p. 59.
  • Lloyd, E. (1988/1994) The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory, Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, esp. Ch. 2.
  • Sloep, P, & van der Steer, W.J. (1987) "The Nature of Evolutionary Theory and the Semantic Challenge", Bio&Phil 2, p. 1.
  • Thompson, P. (1989) The Structure of Biological Theories, Albany: SUNY Press.

O conceito de adaptação

  • Brandon, R. & J. Beatty (1984) "Discussion: The Propensity Interpretation of "Fitness"—No Interpretation is No Substitute" PhilSci 51.
  • Byerly, H.C. & R.E. Michod (1991) "Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation" Bio&Phil 6 [Also see the responses to this article in the same issue.]
  • Ettinger, L., E. Jablonka, & P. McLaughlin (1990) "On the Adaptions of Organism and the Fitness of Types" PhilSci 57.
  • Flew, A.G.N. (1959) "The Structure of Darwinism" New Biology No. 28
  • Keller, E.F. (1987) "Reproduction and the Central Project of Evolutionary Theory" Bio&Phil 2
  • Manser, A. (1956) "The Concept of Evolution" Philosophy 40
  • Mills, S. & J. Beatty (1979) "The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness" PhilSci 46
  • Rosenberg, A. (1982) "On the Propensity Definition of Fitness" PhilSci 49
  • Rosenberg, A. (1983) "Fitness", JPhil 80, pp. 457-473.
  • van der Steen, W.J. (1994) "New Ways to Look at Fitness" History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (3)
  • Waters, C. Kenneth (1986) "Natural Selection Without Survival of the Fittest" Bio&Phil 1

As unidades da selecção

  • Brandon, R.N. and R.M. Burian, eds. (1984) Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies over the units of selection, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
  • Dawkins, R. (1986) The Extended Phenotype, Longman.
  • Dawkins, R. (1989) The Selfish Gene, Oxford: OUP, 2nd ed.
  • Sober, E. (1984) The Nature of Selection, Massachusetts: MIT Press, Pt. II.
  • Sober, E. (1993) Philosophy of Biology, Boulder Colo.: Westview Press, Ch. 4.
  • Sterelny, K. & Kitcher, P. (1988) "The Return of the Gene", JPhil 85, pp.339-361.

A evolução do altruísmo, eusocialidade e sexo

  • Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W.D. (1981) "The Evolution of Cooperation", Science 211, pp. 1390-96. [Repr. in J. Maynard Smith, Evolution Now (1982).]
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. & P. Harvey (1978) Readings in Sociobiology, Section 1.
  • Cronin, H. (1991) The Ant and the Peacock, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Darwin, C. (1871) The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Princeton: PUP [facsimile reproduction of first edition], i, pp. 253-63.
  • Maynard Smith, J. (1958) The Theory of Evolution, Cambridge: CUP Canto, Ch. 12, "Altruism, Social Behaviour, and Sex".
  • Sober, E. (1988) "What is Evolutionary Altruism?" in Philosophy and Biology (ed.) M. Matthen and B. Linsky.
  • Stearns, S.C. ed. (1987) The Evolution of Sex and its Consequences, Basel: Birkhauser, Ch. 1-2.
  • Trivers, R. (1985) Social Evolution, Menlo Park CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Inc.

Conceitos de espécie e as unidades da evolução

  • Brandon, R. & Burian, R. (1984) Genes, Organisms, and Populations, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Ereshefsky, M. (ed.) (1992) The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Ghiselin, M. (1966) "On Psychologism in the Logic of Taxonomic Controversies", Systematic Zoology.
  • Ghiselin, M. (1974) "A Radical Solution to the Species Problem", Systematic Zoology 23.
  • Ghiselin, M. (1987) "Species Concepts, Individuality, and Objectivity" Bio&Phil 38
  • Hull, D. (1976) "Are Species Really Individuals?" Systematic Zoology 25.
  • Hull, D. (1978) "A Matter of Individuality", PhilSci 45.
  • Hull, D. (1965) "The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy", BJPS 15.
  • Kitcher, P. (1984) "Species", PhilSci 51, pp. 308-311.
  • Mayr, E. (1969) "The Biological Meaning of Species" Biology Journal of the Linnean Society 1, pp. 311-320
  • Mayr, E. (1994) "Species Concepts and Their Applications", in Sober's Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology.

Inferência filogenética

  • Sober, E. ed. (1994) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press. [See sec. VII, esp. paper by W. Hennig.]
  • Sober, E. (1988) Reconstructing the Past: Parsinomy, Evolution, and Inference, Cambridge Mass.: The MIT Press.
  • Wiley, E.O. (1981) Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics, New York: John Wiley.

Redução da genética mendeliana à genética molecular

  • Kitcher, P. (1984) "1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences", PhilRev, 93, pp. 335-373.
  • Rosenberg, A. (1994) Instrumental Biology or the Disunity of Science, Chicago: UCP.
  • Schaffner, K. (1969) "The Watson-Crick Model and Reductionism", BJPS 20: 325-348.
  • Schaffner, K., & Hull, D. (1974) Respective articles in PSA 1974.
  • Waters, C.K. (1990) "Why the Antireductionist Consensus won't Survive the Case of Classical Mendelian Genetics", in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues Evolutionary Biology (2nd ed.).
  • Waters, C.K. (1994) "Genes Made Molecular" PhilSci 61, pp. 163-185.

Sociobiologia e psicologia evolucionista

  • Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J., eds (1992) The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, Oxford: OUP.
  • Buss, D.M. (1994) The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of human mating, New York: Basic Books.
  • Caplan, A., ed. (1978) The Sociology Debate, New York: Harper &Row.
  • Kitcher, P. (1987) Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Lewontin, R, S. Rose, & L. Kamin (1984) Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Pinker, S. (1994) The Language Instinct: How the mind creates language, London: Allen Lane.
  • Ridley, M. (1993) The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature, London: Viking Penguin.
  • Rosenberg, A. (1988) Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Wilson, E. O. (1975) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Harvard: HUP.
  • Wright, R. (1994) The Moral Animal: Evolutionary psychology and everyday life, London: Little, Brown.

Criacionismo

  • Futuyma, D. (1982) Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution, Pantheon Books.
  • Gish, D. (1979) Evolution? The Fossils Say No!, Creation-Life Publishers.
  • Hume, D. (1779) Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.
  • Kitcher, P. (1982) Abusing Science: The Case Against Creationism, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Montagu, A. (1984) Science and Creationism, Oxford: OUP [esp. readings by Gallant, Ruse, Overton.].
  • Paley, William (1802) Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Charlottesville VA: Lincoln-Rembrandt Publishing.
  • Ruse, M. (1988) But is it Science? Prometheus Books.

32. Filosofia da física

Filosofia da física em geral

  • Earman, J. (1986) A Primer on Determinism, Dordrecht: Reidel
  • Sklar, L. (1992) Philosophy of Physics, Oxford: OUP.
  • Saunders, S. & H.R. Brown, eds. (1991) The Philosophy of Vacuum, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Filosofia da mecânica clássica: o significado das leis de Newton

  • Barbour, J. (1989) Absolute or Relative Motion? Vol 1: The discovery of dynamics pp. 19-29.
  • Lindsay, R. & H. Margenau (1936) Foundations of Physics, New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 85-98.
  • Hanson, N.R. (1965) "Newton's First Law; A Philosopher's Door into Natural Philosophy", in R.G. Colodny (ed.), Beyond the Edge of Certainty, Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.
  • Earman, J. & M. Friedman (1973) "The meaning and status of Newton's law of inertia and the nature of gravitational forces", PhilSci 49, 329-359.
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science. Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 174-192.

Filosofia da mecânica estatística

  • Batterman, R.W. (1990) "Irreversibility and Statistical Mechanics: A new approach", PhilSci 57.
  • Clark, P. (1987) "Determinism and Probability in Physics", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Association.
  • Denbigh, K. & Denbigh, J. (1985) Entropy in Relation to Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Dougherty, J.P. (1993) HistPhilSci 24.
  • Ehrenfest, P. & Ehrenfest, T. (1990) The Conceptual Foundations of the Statistical Approach in Mechanics, New York: Dover.
  • Farquhar (1964) Ergodic Theory in Statistical Mechanics, New York: Wiley.
  • Khinchin, A.I. (1949) Mathematical Foundations of Statistical Mechanics, New York: Dover.
  • Lavis, D. (1977) "The Role of Statistical Mechanics in Classical Physics", BJPS 28.
  • Malament, D. & S. Zabell (1980) "Why Gibbs Phas Averages Work—The Role of Ergodic Theory", PhilSci 47.
  • Prigogine, I. (1980) From Being to Becoming, W.H. Freeman: San Francisco.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1956) The Direction of Time, Berkeley: U. of California Press.
  • Sklar, L. (1992) Philosophy of Physics, Oxford: OUP, Ch. 3.
  • Sklar, L. (1993) Physics and Chance. Philosophical Issues in Foundations of Statistical Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Penrose, O. (1979) "Foundations of statistical mechanics", Reports in the Progress in Physics 42, 1937-2006.

Filosofia do espaço-tempo e da relatividade

(a) Obras gerais (ordem alfabética; A para obras avançadas)

  • Angel, R. (1980) Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy, Pergamon.
  • Barbour, J. (1989) Absolute or Relative Motion? Vol. 1: The discovery of dynamics, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Earman, J. (1990)A World Enough and Spacetime, Absolute versus Relational Theories of Space and Time, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Friedman, M. (1983)A Foundations of Spacetime Theories, Princeton: PUP.
  • Lucas, J. & P. Hodgson (1990) Spacetime and Electromagnetism, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Nerlich, G. (1994) What Spacetime Explains: Metaphysical Essays on Space and Time, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1958) Philosophy of Space and Time, Dover.
  • Sklar, L. (1974) Space, Time and Spacetime, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
  • Torretti, R. (1983)A Relativity and Geometry, Pergamon.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1985—2nd ed.) Introduction to the Philosophy of Space and Time, New York: Columbia University Press.

(b) O significado dos postulados de Einstein de 1905

  • Brown, H.R. & R. Sypel (1995) "On the meaning of the relativity principle and other symmetries", ISPS 9, 233-251.
  • Nugaev, R.M. (1988) "Special relativity as a stage in the development of quantum theory", Historia Scientarum 34, 57-79.
  • Williamson, R.B. (1977) "Logical Economy in Einstein's "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"", HistPhilSci 8, 49-60.

(c) Como é que a relatividade especial explica?

  • Bell, J.S. (1987) "How to teach special relativity", in The Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 67-80.
  • Brown, H.R. (1993) "Correspondence, invariance and heuristics in the emergence of special relativity", in S. French and H. Kaminga (eds.), Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics; Essays in Honour of Heinz Post, Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 227-260.
  • Friedman, M. (1983) Foundations of Spacetime Theories, Princeton: PUP. Ch IV.
  • Torretti, R. (1983)A Relativity and Geometry, Pergamon, Sec. 4.1-4.2.

(d) O convencionalismo da simultaneidade distante

  • Anderson, R. & G. Stedman (1997) Physics Reports.
  • Malament, D. (1977) "Causal Theories of Time and the Conventionality of Simultaneity" Nous 11, 293-300.
  • Reichenbach, H. (1958) Philosophy of Space and Time, Dover, Section 27.

(e) O "paradoxo" dos gémeos

  • Salmon,W. (1975) Space Time and Motion, A Philosophical Introduction, Encino, CA: Dickinson, Ch IV.
  • Sklar, L. (1974) Space, Time and Spacetime, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, pp. 261-272.

(f) O convencionalismo da geometria

  • Poincare, H. (1955) Science and Hypothesis, Dover, Ch 3.
  • Torretti, R. (1983)A Relativity and Geometry, Pergamon, pp. 230-247.

(g) Substantivalismo e o argumento neo-leibniziano (Hole)

  • Bartels, A. (1994) "What is spacetime, if not a substance", in U. Majer and H-J. Schmidt (eds.) Semantical Aspects of Spacetime Theories, B.I. Wissenschaftsverlag, pp. 41-51.
  • Butterfield, J. (1989) "The Hole Truth", BJPS 40, 1-28.
  • Earman, J. & J. Norton (1987) "What Price Spacetime Substantivalism? The Hole Story", BJPS 38, 515-525.

(h) O princípio de Mach

  • Barbour, J. & H. Pfister, eds. (1995) Mach's Principle: From Newton's Bucket to Quantum Gravity, Birkhauser.
  • Earman, J. (1990)A World Enough and Spacetime, Absolute versus Relational Theories of Space and Time, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press. Ch. 4-5.

(i) A teoria causal do espaço-tempo

  • Lucas, J. & P. Hodgson (1990) Spacetime and Electromagnetism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 3.
  • Nerlich, G. (1994) What Spacetime Explains: Metaphysical Essays on Space and Time, Cambridge: CUP, Ch. 3
  • Robb, A.A. (1914) A Theory of Time and Space, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Torretti, R. (1983)A Relativity and Geometry, Pergamon, Sec. 4.6
  • Winnie, J.A. (1977) "The causal theory of space-time", in J. Earman et al. (eds.) MinnStud Vol. 8, Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

(j) Buracos negros, viagens no tempo

  • Deutsch, D. & M. Lockwood (1994) "The quantum physics of time travel", Scientific American, March, p. 68.
  • Deutsch, D. (1997) The Fabric of Reality, Allen Lane: The Penguin Press, Ch 12.
  • Weingard, R. (1979) "General relativity and the conceivability of time travel", PhilSci 46, 328-332.
  • Weingard, R. (1979) "Some philosophical aspects of black holes", Synthese 42, 191-219.

Filosofia da mecânica quântica

(a) Obras gerais

  • Albert, D. (1994) Quantum Mechanics and Experience, Cambridge Mass: HUP.
  • Bell, J.S. (1987) Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Busch, P. et al., eds. (1991) The Quantum Theory of Measurement, Springer-Verlag.
  • Clifton, R.K. ed. (1996) Perspectives on Quantum Reality, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • d'Espagnat, B. (1995) Veiled Reality, Addison-Wesley.
  • Hughes, R.I.G. (1989) Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge Mass: HUP.
  • Omnès, R. (1994) The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton N.J.: PUP.
  • Primas, H. (1983-2nd Ed.)A Quantum Mechanics, Chemistry and Reductionism, Berlin: Springer.
  • Rae, A. (1986) Quantum Physics: Illusion or Reality?, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Redhead, M.L.G. (1989) Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Squires, E. (1990) Conscious Mind in the Physical World, Adam Hilger.
  • Whitaker, A. (1996) Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma, Cambridge: CUP.

(b) O problema da medição

  • Albert, D. (1994) Quantum Mechanics and Experience, Cambridge Mass: HUP, Ch. 4.
  • Bell, J.S. (1990) "Against "Measurement"", Physics World 3.
  • Redhead, M.L.G. (1989) Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 51-59
  • Squires, E. (1990) Conscious Mind in the Physical World, Adam Hilger, Ch 11.
  • Wheeler, J. & W. Zurek, eds. (1983) Quantum Theory and Measurement, Princeton: PUP [Uma importante colectânea de ensaios cruciais.]

(c) Não-localidade: o paradoxo de Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen e o teorema de Bell

  • Bell, J.S. (1987) Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP, Chs. 2, 4, 7 and 16
  • Brown, H. (1992) "Bell's other theorem and its connection with nonlocality. Part I", in A. van der Merwe et al. (eds.) Bell's Theorem and the Foundations of Modern Physics, World Scientific, pp. 104-116.
  • Butterfield, J. (1992) "Bell's theorem: what it takes", BJPS.
  • Fine, A. (1986) The Shaky Game: Einstein, Realism and the Quantum Theory, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
  • Maudlin, T. (1994) Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Redhead, M.L.G. (1989) Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Chs 3,4.

(d) Teorias das variáveis escondidas

  • Albert, D. (1994) Quantum Mechanics and Experience, Cambridge Mass: HUP, Ch. 7.
  • Belinfante, F. (1973) A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories, Pergamon.
  • Bell, J.S. (1987) Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP, Chs. 1 & 17.
  • Bohm, D. & B. Hiley (1993) The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, London: Routledge.
  • Cushing, J.T. et al., eds. (1996) Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Holland, P. (1993) The Quantum Theory of Motion, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Shimony, A. (1984) "Contextual Hidden Variables Theories and Bell's Inequalities", BJPS 35.

(e) Interpretações em termos de multiplicidade de mundos e de mentes

  • Albert, D. (1994) Quantum Mechanics and Experience, Cambridge Mass: HUP, Ch. 6.
  • Bell, J.S. (1987) The Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge: CUP, Chs 15 and 20
  • Deutsch, D. (1997) The Fabric of Reality, Allen Lane: The Penguin Press.
  • Lockwood, M. (1989) Mind, Brain and the Quantum, London: Blackwell.
  • Lockwood, M. (1996) Special issue of BJPS Vol. 47: essay by Lockwood and replies by various authors.
  • Saunders, S. (1996) "Relativism", in R. Clifton (ed.) Perspectives on Quantum Reality, Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 125-142.

(f) Bohr e a interpretação de Copenhaga

  • Cushing, J.T. (1994) Quantum Mechanics: Historical Contingency versus the Copenhagen Hegemony, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press
  • Mudoch, D. (1987) Niels Bohr's Philosophy of Physics, Cambridge: CUP
  • Scheibe, E. (1970) Logical Analysis of Quantum Mechanics, Pergamon, Ch. 1.
  • Shimony, A. (1963) "Role of the Observer in Quantum Theory", American J. of Physics 31.

(g) Modelos de colapso (redução dinâmica)

  • Ghirardi, G.C. & Pearle, P. (1990) "Dynamical Reduction Theories: Changing Quantum Theory so the Statevector Represents Reality", PSA 1990, Vol. II.
  • Ghirardi, G.C. & Pearle, P. (1990) "Elements of Physical Reality, Nonocality and Stochasticity in Relativistic Dynamical Reduction Models", PSA 1990, Vol. II.
  • Percival, I.C. (1995) "Quantum spacetime fluctuations and primary state diffusion", Proceedings of the Royal Society 451, 503-513.
  • Shimony, A. (1990) "Desiderata for a Modified Quantum Dynamics", PSA 1990, Vol. II.
  • Whitaker, A. (1996) Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 305-308.

(h) Histórias consistentes, "decoerência"

  • Dowker, F. & A. Kent (1994) "On the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics", J. of Statistical Physics 82, 1575-1646.
  • Zurek, W.H. (1991) "Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical', Physics Today, October, pp. 36-44. [Ver também as respostas ao ensaio de Zurek's no número de Abril de 1993 da mesma revista.]

(i) Interpretações modais

  • Bacciagaluppi, G. & M. Hemmo (1996) "Modal Interpretations, Decoherence, and Measurements", Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27B.
  • Bub, J. (1997) Interpretating the Quantum World, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Healey, R. (1989) The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics; An Interactive Interpretation, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Kochen, S. (1985) "A New Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics", in P. Lahti & P. Mittleastaedt (eds.) Symposium on the Foundations of Modern Physics 1985, Singapore: World Scientific.
  • van Fraassen, B. (1991) Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View, Oxford: OUP, Pt. IV.
  • Vermaas, P. & D. Dieks ( 1995) "The modal interpretation of quantum mechanics and its generalization to density operators", Foundations of Physics 25, 145-158.

(j) Lógica quântica

  • Hooker, C.A. (1975) The Logico-Algebraic Approach to Quantum Mechanics Vol. 1: Historical Evolution, Dordrecht: Reidel. [Contains the papers below.]
  • Hughes, R.I.G. (1989) Structure and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge Mass: HUP, Ch. 7.
  • Jauch, J.M. & C. Piron (1969) "On the Structure of Quantal Proposition Systems", Helvetica Physica Acta 43.
  • Specker, E.P. (1960) "The Logic of Propositions which are not Simultaneously Decidable", Dialectica 14. [In German. Translated to English in Hooker (1975).]
  • van Fraassen, B. (1974) "The Labyrinth of Quantum of Logics", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13.

Filosofia e teoria dos campos quânticos

  • Auyang, S.Y. (1995) How is Quantum Field Theory Possible?, Oxford: OUP.
  • Brown, H.R. & R. Harre, eds. (1988) Philosophical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Huggett, N. & R. Weingard (1994) "Interpretations of Quantum Field Theory" PhilSci 61, 370-388.
  • Huggett, N. & R. Weingard (1994) "On the field aspect of quantum fields", Erkenntnis 40, 293-301.
  • Huggett, N. & R. Weingard (1995) "The renormalization group and effective field theories", Synthese 102, pp. 171-194.
  • Huggett, N. & R. Weingard (1996) "Review of "An Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory"", PhilSci
  • Saunders, S. & H.R. Brown, eds. (1991) The Philosophy of Vacuum, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Teller, P. (1995) An Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory, Princeton: PUP.

33. Filosofia da psicologia

Panorâma geral e colectâneas

  • Block, N. (1980) Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology Vols. 1 and 2, Cambridge Mass: HUP.
  • Bruce, V. ed. (1996) Unsolved Mysteries of Mind, Sussex: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Churchland, P.M. (1988) Matter and Consciousness: A contemporary introduction to the philosophy of mind [revised ed.], Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Churchland, P.S. (1986) Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind/brain, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Flanagan, Owen (1990) The Science of the Mind [2nd ed.], Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Gardner, H. (1985) The Mind's New Science: A history of the cognitive revolution, NY: Basic Books.
  • Lycan, W.G. ed. (1990) Mind and Cognition: a reader, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Macdonald, C. and Macdonald, G. eds. (1995) The Philosophy of Psychology: Debates on psychological explanation, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Rosenthal, D. ed. (1991) The Nature of Mind, Oxford: OUP.
  • Weiskrantz, L. ed. (1988) Thought Without Language, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Reducionismo níveis de explicação

  • Bechtel, W. & Abrahamsen, A. (1991) Connectionism and the Mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Ch. 8.
  • Block, N. (1990) "The Computer Model of Mind", in D.N. Osherson and E.E. Smith (eds.) An Invitation to Cognitive Science Vol. 1: Thinking, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Charles, D. & Lennon, K. (1992) Reduction, Explanation, and Realism, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Churchland, P.S. (1986) Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind/brain, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press, Ch. 7 and 9.
  • Clark, A. (1990) "Connectionism, Competence, and Explanation", in M. Boden (ed.) The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence, Oxford: OUP.
  • Cummins, R. (1983) The Nature of Phychological Explanation, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Fodor, J.A. (1974) "Special Sciences (or: the disunity of science as a working hypothesis)", Synthese 28, pp. 97-115.
  • Fodor, J.A. (1989) "Making Mind Matter More" Philosophical Topics 17, 59-80.
  • Marr, D. (1982) Vision, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., Ch. 1, 7.
  • Peacocke, C. (1986) "Explanation in Computational Psychology: Language, Perception, and Level 1.5", Mind and Language 1, p. 101-123.
  • Stelreny, K. (1990) The Representational Theory of Mind: An introduction, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, esp. Ch. 3.

Modularidade

  • Fodor, J. (1983) The Modularity of Mind, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Fodor, J. (1985) Precis of The Modularity of Mind, Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 8, pp. 1-42.
  • Garfield, J.L. (1994) "Modularity", in Guttenplan, S. (ed.) A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Garfield, J.L. (ed.) (1987) Modularity in Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Understanding, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Sterelny, K. (1990) The Representational Theory of Mind: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell, ch.4.

Dissociação dupla e neuropsicologia cognitiva

  • Coltheart, M. (1985) "Cognitive neuropsychology and the study of reading", in Posner & Marin (eds.) Attention and Performance XI (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum).
  • Glymour, C. (1994) "On the Methods of Cognitive Neuropsychology", BJPS 45, 815-35.
  • Shallice, T. (1988) From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure, Cambridge: CUP, Part 3.
  • Stone, T. & Davies, M. (1993) "Cognitive neuropsychology and the philosophy of mind", BJPS 44, 589-622.

Conhecimento tácito

  • Chomsky, N. (1990) "Language and Problems of Knowledge" in Martinich, A. P. (ed.) The Philosophy of Language, Oxford: OUP.
  • Chomsky. N. (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Mass.: MIT Press, ch.1.
  • Davies, M. (1989) "Tacit Knowledge and Subdoxastic States", in George, A. (ed.) Reflections on Chomsky, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Quine, W. V. O. (1972) "Methodological Reflections on Current Linguistic Theory", in Davidson and Harman (eds.) Semantics of Natural Language, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Stich, S. (1978) "Beliefs and Subdoxastic States", PhilSci, 45, pp. 499-518.

Conexionismo

  • Bechtel, W. & Abrahamsen, A. (1991) Connectionism and the Mind, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Clark, A. (1989) Microcognition: Philosophy, cognitive science, and parallel distributed processing, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • Davies, M. (1989) "Connectionism, Modularity and Tacit Knowledge", BJPS 40, pp. 541-55.
  • Fodor, J. & Pylyshyn, Z. (1988) "Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture", Cognition.
  • Horgan, T. & Tienson, J. eds. (1991) Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • McDonald, C. & McDonald, G. eds. (1995) Connectionism: Debates on Psychological Explanation, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Pinker, S. & Prince (1988) "On Language and Connectionism", Cognition.
  • Sterelny, K. (1990) The Representational Theory of the Mind, Oxford: Blackwell, ch.8.

Consciência e qualia

  • Crick, F. & Koch, C. (1992) "The Problem of Consciousness", Scientific American, September.
  • Davies, M. & Humphreys, G. W. eds. (1993) Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Dennett, D. (1988) "Quining Qualia" in A.J. Marcel & E. Bisiach (eds.) Consciousness in Contemporary Science.
  • Dennett, D. (1991) Consciousness Explained, Boston: Little Brown & Co.
  • Jackson, F. (1982) "Epiphenomenal Qualia" PhilQuart 32, pp. 127-136.
  • Levine, J. (1983) "Materialism and Qualia: The Explanatory Gap" Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 64, pp. 354-361.
  • Marcel, A.J. & Bisiach, E. eds. (1988) Consciousness in Contemporary Science, Oxford: OUP.
  • McGinn, C. (1991) The Problem of Consciousness, Oxford: OUP.
  • Nagel, T. (1974) "What is it like to be a bat?" PhilRev 83, p. 435-450. [Repr. in his Mortal Questions.]
  • Young,. A.W. & Block, N. (1996) "Consciousness", in V.Bruce (ed.) Unsolved Mysteries of Mind.

Atenção

  • Allport, A. (1980) "Attention and Performance", in G. Claxton (ed.) Cognitive Psychology: New Directions, London: RKP.
  • Allport, A. (1993) "Attention and Control: Have we been asking the wrong questions? A Critical Review of 25 Years" in S. Kornblum & D.E. Meyers (eds.) Attention and Performance XIV: A Silver Jubilee, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press.
  • James, W. (1890) The Principles of Psychology, NY: Holt.
  • Johnston, W.A. & Dark, V.J. (1986) "Selective Attention", Annual Review of Psychology 37.
  • Navon, D. (1984) "Resources—a theoretical soup stone?" Psychological Review 91.
  • Neumann, O. (1987) "Beyond Capacity: a functional view of attention", in H. Heuer & A.F. Sanders (eds.), Perspectives on Perception and Action, Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Norman, D.A. & Shallice, T. (1986) "Attention to Action: Willed and automatic control of behavior", in R.J. Davidson, G.E. Schwartz, & D. Shapiro (eds.) Consciousness and Self-Regulation: Advances in research Vol. 4, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Posner, M.I. & Rothbart, M.K. (1992) "Attentional mechanism and conscious experience", in A.D. Milner & M. Rugg (eds.) The Neuropsychology of Consciousness, London: Academic Press.
  • Treisman, A.M. & Gelade, G. (1980) "A feature-integration theory of attention", Cognitive Psychology 12.
  • Underwood, G. (1982) "Attention and awareness in cognitive and motor skills", in G. Underwood (ed.) Aspects of Consciousness Vol. 3, London: Academic Press.
  • van der Heijden, A.H.C. (1992) Selective Attention in Vision, London: RKP.

Psicologia popular e estímulo mental

  • Bennett, M. ed. (1993) The Child as Psychologist, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  • Carruthers, P. & Smith, P. K. eds. (1996) Theories of Theories of Mind, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Davies, M. & Stone, T. eds. (1995) Folk Psychology: The Theory of Mind Debate, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Davies, M. & Stone, T. eds. (1995) Mental Simulation: Evaluations and Applications, Oxford: Blackwell.

Racionalidade e irracionalidade

  • Cohen, L. J. (1981) "Can Human Irrationality be Experimentally Demonstrated?", Behavioural and Brain Sciences 4, pp. 317-331.
  • Foley, R.. (1988) "Some Different Conceptions of Rationality", in McMullin, E. (ed.) Construction and Constraint, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Kahneman, D., Slovic, P. & Tversky, A. (1982) Judgment Under Uncertainty, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Nisbett, R. & Ross, L. (1980) Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgement, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Stich, S.P. (1984) "Could Man Be an Irrational Animal? Some Notes on the Epistemology of Rationality", Synthese 64: 1. [A maior parte deste artigo está reimpresso em The Fragmentation of Reason, Oxford: OUP.]

Psicologia evolucionista

[Ver também a secção "Sociobiologia" em "Filosofia da Biologia"]

  • Alexander, R.D. (1989) "Evolution of the Human Psyche" in P. Mellars & C. Stringer (eds.) The Human Revolution, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Clark, A. (1989) Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science, and Parallel Distributed Processing, Cambridge Mass: MIT Press, Ch. 4.
  • Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1994) "Beyond intuition and instinct blindness: toward an evolutionary rigorous cognitive science" Cognition 50, pp. 44-77.
  • Sterelny, K. (1992) "Evolutionary explanations of human behavior", Australian JPhil 70, p. 156-173.
  • Symons, D. (1992) "On the Use and Misuse of Darwinism in the Study of Human Behavior", in Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby (eds) The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, Oxford: OUP.
  • Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1995) "Introduction", and "Mapping the evolved functional organization of mind and brain" in Gazzaniga, M.S. (ed.) The Cognitive Neurosciences, Mass.: MIT Press.

Behaviorismo

  • Chomsky, M. (1959) Review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, Language 35, p. 26-58. [Repr. in N. Block (ed.) Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology Vol. 1.]
  • Dennett, D.C. (1975) "Why the Law of Effect will not go away", J. of the Theory of Social Behaviour 5, 169-176. [Repr. in his Brainstorms.]
  • Dennett, D.C. (1978) "Skinner Skinned", in Dennett's Brainstorms.
  • Hull, C. (1943) Principles of Behavior.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1953) Science and Human Behavior, London: Macmillan.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1971) Beyond Freedom and Dignity, NY: Alfred Knopf.
  • Watson, J.B. (1930) Behaviorism [revised edition], NY: W.W. Norton.

34. Filosofia das ciências sociais

Introduções

  • Elster, J. The Cement of Society (1989), or Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences (1989), Cambridge: CUP.
  • Fay, B. & J.D. Moon (1977) "What Would an Adequate Philosophy of Social Science Look Like?", Philosophy of Social Science 7. [Also in M&M (see below under Collections.]
  • Hollis, M. (1994) The Philosophy of Social Science: An Introduction, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Hughes, J. (1990) The Philosophy of Social Research, London: Longman.
  • Manicas, P.T. (1987) A History and Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
  • Machlup, F. (1961) "Are the Social Sciences Really Inferior", Southern Economic Journal 17. [Also in M&M.]
  • Rosenberg, A. (1988) Philosophy of Social Science, Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Ryan, A. (1970) The Philosophy of the Social Sciences,
  • Trigg, R. (1985) Understanding Social Science: A Philosophical Introduction to the Social Science, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Colectâneas

  • Brodbeck, M. ed. (1968) Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences,
  • Hollis, M .& Lukes, S. eds. (1982) Rationality and Relativism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Martin, M. & L.C. McIntyre eds. (1994) Readings in the Philosophy of Social Science, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. [Abbreviated in this section as M&M.]
  • Ryan, A. ed. (1973) The Philosophy of Social Explanation, Oxford: OUP.

Leis na explicação social

  • Fay, B. (1983) "General Laws and Explaining Behaviour" in Changing Social Science (eds.) D. R. Sabia & J. Wallulis, Albany: SUNY Press. [Also in M&M.]
  • Hempel, C. (1942) "The Function of General Laws in History", JPhil 39. [Also in M&M.]
  • Kincaid, H. (1990) "Defending Laws in the Social Sciences", Philosophy of Social Science 20. [Also in M&M.]
  • McIntyre, L. (1993) ""Complexity" and Social Scientific Laws", Synthese 97. [Also in M&M.]
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science, New York: Harcourt, Ch. 13.
  • Romanos, G. (1973) "Reflexive Predictions", PhilSci 40. [Also in M&M.]
  • Scriven, M. (1956) "A Possible Distinction between Traditional Scientific Disciplines and the Study of Human Behavior", MinnStud 1. [Also in M&M.]

Interpretação e explicação

  • Dray, W. (1957) Laws and Explanation in History, Oxford: OUP, pp. 118-131. [Also in M&M as "The Rationale of Action".]
  • Follesdal, D. (1979) "Hermeneutics and the Hypothetico-Deductive Method", Dialectica 33, pp. 319-336.
  • Giddens, A. (1976) New Rules of Sociological Method.
  • MacIntyre, A. (1973) "Is a Science of Comparative Politics Possible?", in A. Ryan (ed.) The Philosophy of Social Explanation.
  • Martin, J.R. (1969) "Another Look at the Doctrine of Verstehen", BJPS 20, pp. 53-67.
  • Martin, M. (1994) "Taylor on Interpretation and the Sciences of Man", in M&M.
  • Schutz, A. "Concept and Theory Formation in the Social Sciences" in D. Emmet & A. MacIntyre (eds.) Sociological Theory and Philosophical Analysis.
  • Taylor, C. (1971) "Interpretation and the Sciences of Man" Review of Metaphysics 25, pp. 3-51. [Also in M&M.]
  • Weber, M. (1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences, New York: Macmillan, Ch. 3.
  • Winch, P. (1972) "Understanding a Primitive Society" in Ethics and Action, London: RKP (1972).
  • Winch, P. (1958) The Idea of a Social Science (2nd ed.), London: RKP.

Racionalização de explicações / teoria da escolha racional

  • Davidson, D. (1980) "Actions, Reasons, and Causes" in his Essays on Actions and Events, Oxford: OUP.
  • Elster, J. Rational Choice (1986) London: Blackwell, The Cement of Society (1989) Cambridge: CUP, or Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences (1989), Cambridge: CUP.
  • Elster, J. (1985) "The Nature and Scope of Rational-Scope Explanation", in E. LePore and B. McLaughlin (eds.) Actions and Events: Perspectives on Donald Davidson, Oxford: OUP. [Also in M&M.]
  • Follesdal, D. "The Status of Rationality Assumptions in Interpretation and in the Explanation of Action", Dialectica 36. [Also in M&M.]
  • Henderson, D. (1989) "The Role and Limitations of Rationalizing Explanation in the Social Sciences", Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19.
  • Hollis, M. (1987) The Cunning of Reason, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Mansbridge, J.J. (1990) Beyond Self-Interest, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, Pts. I, II, III.
  • Pettit, P. (1978) "Rational Man Theory", in Action and Interpretation (eds.) C. Hookway and P. Pettit, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Rosenberg, A. (1983) "If Economics Isn't Science, What Is It?" Philosophical Forum 14, pp. 296-314.
  • Sen, A.K. (1976-77) "Rational Fools", in Philosophy and Public Affairs 6, pp. 317-344. [Repr. in F. Hahn & M. Hollis (eds.) Philosophy and Economic Theory]
  • Taylor, C. (1985) "What is Human Agency?" in Human Agency and Language

Tradução, racionalidade e relativismo

  • Davidson, D. (1983) "Belief and the Basis of Meaning" and "On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme" in his Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation, Oxford: OUP.
  • Geertz, Clifford (1983) "From the Native Point of View", in The Interpretation of Culture, New York: HarperCollins.
  • Gellner, Ernest (1985) Relativism and the Social Sciences, Cambridge: CUP, esp. "Relativism and Universals".
  • Harding, Sandra (1986) The Science Question in Feminism, Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, esp. Ch. 6, 7.
  • Henderson, D. (1987) "The Principle of Charity and the Problem of Irrationality (Translation and the Problem of Irrationality)" Synthese 73, pp. 225-252. [Also in M&M.]
  • Hollis, M. (1970) "Reason and Ritual" and "The Limits of Rationality" in B. Wilson (ed.) Rationality, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Lukes, Steven (1994) "Some Problems about Rationality" in Martin, M. & L.C. McIntyre (eds.).
  • MacIntyre, A. (1970) "The Idea of a Social Science" in B. Wilson (ed.) Rationality, New York: Harper and Row. [Also in A. Ryan (ed.) The Philosophy of Social Explanation.]
  • Quine, W.V.O. (1970) "On the Reasons for the Indeterminacy of Translation", JPhil 67.
  • Taylor, C. (1982) "Rationality" in S. Lukes & M. Hollis (eds.) Rationality and Relativism, Oxford: OUP.
  • Winch, P. (1972) "Understanding a Primitive Society" in Ethics and Action, London: RKP (1972).

Objectividade e valores

  • Comstock, D. (1982) "A Method of Critical Research", E. Bredo & W. Feinberg (eds.) Knowledge and Values in Social and Educational Research, Philadelphia: Temple U. Press. [Also in M&M.]
  • Habermas, J. (1968) Knowledge and Human Interests, Appendix. [Also see R. Bernstein (1976) The Restructuring of Social and Political Theory, and T. McCarthy (1978) The Critical Theory of Jurgen Habermas, Ch. 2.]
  • Hesse, M. (1978) "Theory and Value in the Social Sciences" in C. Hookway and P. Pettit (eds.) Action and Interpretation, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Martin, M. (1977) "The Philosophical Importance of the Rosenthal Effect", J. for the Theory of Social Behavior 7. [Also in M&M.]
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science, New York: Hackett, pp. 485-503. [Also in M&M as "The Value-Oriented Bias of Social Inquiry".]
  • Oppenheim, F. (1981) Political Concepts, Ch. 8 and 9.
  • Papineau, D. (1978) For Science in the Social Sciences, Ch. 7.
  • Runciman, W.G. (1983) A Treatise on Social Theory Vol. 1: The Methodology of Social Theory, Ch. 1 and 5.
  • Taylor, C. (1973) "Neutrality in Political Science" in A. Ryan (ed.) The Philosophy of Social Explanation and in Taylor's Collected Papers Vol. II. [Also in M&M.]
  • Weber, M. (1949) ""Objectivity" in Social Science and Policy", in The Methodology of the Social Sciences, New York: Macmillan Press. [Also in M&M.]
  • Weisstein, N. (1971) "Psychology Constructs the Female" Social Education 35. [Also in M&M.]
  • Wyle, A. (1992) "Reasoning about Ourselves: Feminist Methodology in the Social Sciences", in E. Harvey & K. Okruhik (eds.) Women and Reason, Ann Arbor: U. of Michigan Press. [Also in M&M.]

Explicação funcional

  • Cohen, G.A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defense, Princeton: PUP, Ch. 9, 10. [Also in M&M.]
  • Cohen/Elster (1986 and 1989) Contributions to J. Roemer (ed.) Analytical Marxism and A. Callinicos (ed.) Marxist Theory.
  • Dore, R.P. (1961) "Function and Cause" Sociological Review 16, pp. 843-853. [Also in M&M.]
  • Elster, J. (1983) "Functional Explanation" in Explaining Technical Change, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 55-68. [Also in M&M.]
  • Elster, J. (1986) An Introduction to Karl Marx, Cambridge: CUP, pp. 21-34.
  • Hempel, C. (1965) "The Logic of Functional Analysis", in his Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: Macmillan. [Also in M&M.]
  • Kincaid, H. (1990) "Assessing Functional Explanation in the Social Sciences", PSA 1990 Vol. I, pp. 341-54. [Also in M&M.]
  • Merton, R.K. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure, NY: Free Press, Ch. I pp. 19-66.
  • Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science, New York: Hackett, Ch. 12 & 14 (second part).
  • Rosenberg, A. (1988) Philosophy of Social Science, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 5.
  • Taylor, C. (1964) The Explanation of Behaviour, London: RKP, Ch. 1
  • van Parijs, P. (1981) Evolutionary Explanation in the Social Sciences, Ch. 2 and 3.

Reducionismo e individualismo

  • Bhargava, R. (1992) Individualism in Social Science, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Garfinkel, A. (1981) Forms of Explanation: Rethinking the Questions in Social Theory, New Haven, Conn: Yale Univ. Press, Ch. 2, 3.
  • Kincaid, H. (1986) "Reduction, Explanation and Individualism" PhilSci 53, pp. 492-513. [Also in M&M.]
  • Lukes, S. (1968) "Methodological Individualism Reconsidered", British J. of Sociology 19, 119-129. [Also in M&M.]
  • Macdonald, G. and P. Pettit (1981) Semantics and Social Science, London: Routledge, Ch. 3.
  • Miller, R. (1978) "Methodological Individualism and Social Explanation" PhilSci 45, pp. 387-414. [Also in M&M.]
  • Popper, K. (1957) The Poverty of Historicism, London: Routledge, Sec. 23, 28-29.
  • Rosenberg, A. (1988) Philosophy of Social Science, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Ch. 6.
  • Taylor, C. (1985) "Atomism", in his Philosophy and the Human Sciences, Cambridge: CUP.
  • Watkins, J. (1957) "Historical Explanations in the Social Sciences" BJPS 8, pp. 104-117. [Also in M&M.]
  • Watkins, J. (1968) "Methodological Individualism Reconsidered", Brodbeck, M. (ed.) Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.

Realismo e factos sociais

  • Benton, T. (1977) Philosophical Foundations of the Three Sociologies, London: Routledge.
  • Berger, P. & T. Luckmann (1984) The Social Construction of Reality, Pelican Books.
  • Bhaskar, R. (1979) The Possibility of Naturalism: A Philosophical Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences (2nd ed), Harvester Press, esp Ch. 3.
  • Durkheim, E. (1952) Suicide, London: Routledge, Preface and Introduction.
  • Durkheim, E. (1938) "Social Facts", in The Rules of Sociological Method, Ch. 1. [Also in M&M.]
  • Mandelbaum, M. (1955) "Social Facts", in British J. of Sociology 6. [Repr. in Ryan.]
  • Outhwaite, W. (1987) New Philosophies of Social Science, Basingstoke: Macmillan, esp Ch. 4, 6, 7.
  • Ruben, D-H. (1985) The Metaphysics of the Social World, London: RKP, Ch. 1, 4.
  • Searle, J.R. (1995) The Construction of Social Reality, London: Penguin.
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